Skip to main content

Full text of "A guide to the Maltese islands"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book lhal w;ls preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as pari of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one thai was never subject 

to copy right or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often dillicull lo discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher lo a library and linally lo you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud lo partner with libraries lo digili/e public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order lo keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial panics, including placing Icchnical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make n on -commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request thai you use these files for 
personal, non -commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort lo Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each lile is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use. remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is slill in copyright varies from country lo country, and we can'l offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull lexl of 1 1 us book on I lie web 
al |_-.:. :.-.-:: / / books . qooqle . com/| 




60000433SL 



'AW/ft 



TO 



THE MALTESE ISLANDS, 



BY THE 



Reyd. p, N. Godwin, 

CHAPLAIN TO THE FOB.CES. 



MALTA: 

PRINTED BY PAOLO BONAVIA :— lt.DCCC.LXXX. 

LONDON: W. Whtttingiiam and Co. 91, Gracechurch Street, 
MALTA. W. "Watson, 248 Strada Reale, 
L. Cuttien, 28 Strada S. Giovpnni. 
Also from the Author, and all Booksellers. 

[All Bights Reserved.] 



DEDICATED 

(by permission) 

WITH MUCH RESPECT 

TO 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

GEN. SIR ARTHUR BOSTON, K. C. B. 

GOVERNOR 
AND COMMANDER IN CHIEF 

IN 
MALTA AND ITS DEPENDENCIES. 



PREFACE. 

Go, little book! most modest, unpretending, 
To guide the tourist, or the sufferer wending 
His way in quest of health to Malta's shore, 
Some wanderer too, perchance/ minding of days of yore. 
Say to enquirers that they here will find, 
Strength for the body, pleasure for the mind. 
Speak thou to him whom History's Muse delights, 
Of bygone days, of "Malta and Its Knights;" 
Heroic deeds, Cross battling with, the Crescent, 
Of "Seahings" valiant, "Malta Past and Present;" 
If for thy readers rocks and caves have charms, 
Or if they solace find in Nature's arms ; 
Bid them, like misers keen, unlock the hoard, 
Which Adams, Ciantar, Spratt, have richly stored. 
Thy Author's ta'en some facts, t for which he 
Returns his thanks to Townsend, Badger, Bitchie, 
To Ferris, Douglas, Gatt, Inglott and Camilleri, 
Vassallo, Bennet, Gale, to Rosenbusch not chary : 
To Captain Raymond, Doctor Cousin too, 
The Dockyard Chaplain and Archdeacon Cleugh. 
Vaunt not thyself, thine is a lowly station! 
Remember what thou art, — a compilation ! 
Sending thee forth, the Author's labour ends, 
Not without grateful thanks to all un mentioned friends. 



u 



PART FIRST. 



CHAPTER I. 
The ^altese Islands. 

Situation. — Dimensions. — Bays and Inlets. — Population. — 
Wages.'— Food.- : — Greatest elevation of the islands. — Appearance 
from the sea* — The ancient Athalantis. — Evidences of diminution 
of area. 

• 

THE Maltese islands, viz., Malta, Gozo, Comino, and 
Cominotto, are situated at a greater distance from 
the mainland than any others in the Mediterranean. 
They occupy an area S. B. by E. and N. W. by W. 
true 8| leagues. Cape S. Demetri the N. W. extremity 
of Gozo is in lat. 36 6 . 3', long. 14° 10' and 50 milea 
8. E. i E. from the S. E. point of Pantellaria; Benghisa 
Point, to the S. E. of Malta being in lat. 35° 49 \ Ion. 
14 33f. The axis of the group, 2% tiles in length, 
runs from S. E. to N. W. in the same Qlirection as the 
Apennines. The eastern extremity of Malta is 55 miles 
S. S. W. $ W. from Cape Passaro, and 54 miles S. J E. 
from Cape Scalambri in Sicily. Cape San Demitri in 
Gozo is distant from Cape ycalambri S. S. W. rather 
southerly, 46 miles. The intervening strait is called 
the Malta Channel. Cape Spartiventojthe nearest point 
of the Italian mainland is 190 miles away; nor will Cape 
Bon on the African shore be reached nntil nearly 200 
miles of sea have been traversed. Malta and the adjacent 
islands which are officially styled its "dependencies" 
How geographically form part of Europe, whilst as to 



8 

climate and productions they have much in common 
with Africa. Malta itself is 17J miles long, 9J broad, 
and about 60 miles in circumference. A boat sailing 
round it would traverse some 44 miles. Its area is esti- 
mated at 95 statute square miles, and its longest day is 
14 hours 52 minutes. Its principal ports are the Great 
and Quarantine Harbours of Valetta which are separat- 
ed by Mount Sceberras on which the city is built. Of 
these we shall speak hereafter. There are also on the 
northern shores the Bays of Melleha, St. Paul, Saline, 
Maddalena, St. George, St. Julian, Marsa Scala, St. 
Thomas and Marsa Scirocco, several of which could be, 
and have often been, extensively used by shipping. 
The straits of Freghi or Flieghi separate Malta from 
Gozo. They are about four miles in width, sufficiently 
deep to be navigated by large vessels, and Wjpsh the 
shores of the two small islands of Comino and Comi- 
notto, which lie between the larger ones of the Maltese 
group. Comino and Cominotto are two miles long by 
one broad. Gozo is 9 miles in length and five in 
breadth. On the northern shore of Gozo are the Bays 
of Bamla and } r ^sa el Forn, and on the southern those 
of Sclendi and JPueyra. But for the most part landing 
is impracticable on the southern shore of either Malta 
or Gozo as precipitous cliffs rise sheer from the 
water's edge, frequently to a height of several hun- 
dred feet. There is also off tbe southern shore of 
Malta a small island named Filfla from the Arabic 
word "Filfel" ^vhich means a "peppercorn," on ac- 
count of its diminutive size. About one third of 
Malta and Gozo is bare rock, and only one half is 
actually under cultivation. This renders it the more 
surprising that so large a nnmber of people can find 
existence here. 



9 

The population of Malta, excluding the army and 
Navy, according to the census taken in 1871, was 
124,334, that of Gozo* being 17,391, making a total 
of 141,775. The present population is (1880) about 
152,000. Malta with an area of 95 statute square 
miles has a population of nearly 1500 per square 
mile, and Gozo with an area of 20 square miles, 
has a population of 900 per square mile. But ex- 
cluding the one third of the island which is unsuitable 
of cultivation, and the area occupied by buildings, 
the population of Malta reaches the enormous num- 
ber of 2000 persons per square mile. Something 
must be done and that speedily to relieve this ever 
increasing and but too often impoverished mass of 
striving, toiling humanity. A few statistics as to wa- 
ges, &c, may be of interest. Of a total Maltese popu- 
lation of 149,270 a Government report estimates the 
working classes to number 112,360 and the non-ma- 
nual classes 33,910. 

The P. & O. Company pay the men who coal 
their steamers 2s. 6d. per diem but the generality 
of Maltese coalheavers only, earn from Is. 6d. to Is. 
8d. daily. The boatmen who ferries you across the 
harbour gets on the average from Is. to Is. 4d. per 
diem, the porter earns Is. and the carter lOd. daily. 

The best paid artisans are skilled engravers, 
who earn from 2s. to 5s. per diem according to 
ability. Compositors earn from lOd. to Is. 8cZ., shoe- 
makers Is. to ls.3d., the makers of xoramon cigars 
bd. to l\d. y spinners 2Jrf. per diem. Gardeners re- 
ceive from Is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. daily, agricultural 
labourers Is. 0$d. to Is. 8d. women employed in 
ield labour from 4d. to lOd. Only two-fifths of 
•he meat eaten on the island is consumed by the 



10 

Maltese, the remainder being required by the En- 
glish population. The boatman eats about 4 lbs. 
8 oz., of bread or pasta every* day, the farm labourer 
5 lbs., and the artisan 3 J lbs., at a cost of 3£d. 
per rotolo of 28 oz. A little oil, fish, or cheap 
Sicilian cheese forms a relish to this frugal fare, 
which, when times are good is moistened with from 
half a pint to a pint of common Sicilian wine. 
Brandy, costing 4s. 6d, per gallon, is largely con- 
sumed. Many a dweller in the Fior del Mondo or 
the Flower of the World as the Maltese love to 
call .their rocky home knows fall well, from hard 
experience the meaning of that oft repeated phrase 
"the battle of life." 

The highest point of Malta is a rising ground near 
Casal Dingli, elevated 750 feet above sea level. The 
hill of Dibiegi 743 feet above the level of the sea is 
the greatest elevation of which Gozo can boast. The 
Maltese islands are visible at a distance of 24 miles 
and when seen from the sea have the appearance 
of low-lying shores intersected by channels and 
ravines. The want of trees and the numerous stone 
walls which divide the fields give a dreary and bar- 
ren appearance to the landscape. But there are 
minds on which colour makes a deeper impression 
than form, and there is something in the contrast 
between that burnt yellow soil, the intense white 
of the limestone where exposed, the dark verdure 
of the caroubisr and other scanty trees which leaves 
its mark upon the memory when the vividness o5 
far fairer scenes has faded away, and sunseti 
steal over these waters the glowing gold of whicl 
an artist may well despair of imitating. Many of 
the heights in Gozo are cone shaped. 



11 

These islands are supposed with good reason to 
have formed part of a much larger tract of land 
now submerged, and which was either a large island 
or islands, or else formed part of Europe or Afri- 
ca, if not of both. Signor Borzesi has done his 
best to prove that Malta, Gozo, and Gomino re- 
present the summits of lofty mountains belonging 
to the island of Athalantis, and brings forward 
many classical quotations in support, of his theory. 
Signor Grongnet had formerly in his possession a 
stone which it is said was dug up at Citta Yec- 
chia in May 1826, on which was an inscription des- 
cribing Athalantis, and also another to the effect 
that the consul Tiberius Sempronius in the year of 
Borne 536 had ordered the preservation of this stone. 
A fine field for discussion is here open to Arch- 
geologists. It is evident that Malta has diminish" 
ed in size during the historic period. On the south- 
ern shore are to be seen near Fom-e-Rieh cart 
tracks which extend to the very edge of a cliff 
some 80 feet in height. Similar ruts are also to 
be seen at the St. George's Creek of the Bay of 
Marsascirocco and at Marfa from whence passengers 
take boat for Gozo. 



12 

CHAPTER II. 

Wistorical Outline. 

Malta in the days of the Giants. — The Phoenicians, Greeks, 
Carthaginians and Romans. — Arab Rule. — Arrival of Count 
Roger. — French and German Sovereigns. — The Knights of 
St. John and the Great Siege. — Decay of the Order. — Malta 
surrenders te Buonaparte. — Capitulation of General Vaubois. 
— English Governors in Malta. 

ONE of our sweetest singers has saidt hat we may 

" departing leave behind us, 

Footprints on the sands of time, " 

# 

and as it is with ourselves so has it been with those 

who have preceded us. Many and varied are the 

nationalities which have found a home in Malta and 

which have all left behind them footprints, more or 

less distinct. 

The first inhabitants of whom we have any record 

are the Giants who dared to war with Jupiter, and to 

take high heaven by storm. The curious in such matters 

#ill find a long dissertation on the subject of the Giants 

and their doings in Giantars Malta Illustrata (Book II). 

That most useful but somewhat credulous historian says 

"But lastly what further testimony can we desire of 

the habitation tof the Cyclops than that given us by 

the gigantic bones found in Malta and their hollow 

burial places cut in the living rock and very often 

of enormous size, as for example a bone which the 

owner of a house used as a cross-bar for the door ? 

We ourselves have seen a molar tooth of the thick- 



13 

ness of the finger and an inch in length which 
was extracted from a gigantic head found outside 
Birchircara !" 

Alas for romance and the fabled kingdom 
of the giants ! Dr. Adams clearly shews that 
these remains belonged to some fossil elephant or 
hippopotamus, and not to any monster in human 
shape ! According to Homer these first! gigantio 
inhabitants of Malta were named Phceacians, and cal- 
led their island home Hyperia. Eurymedon was their 
sovereign, but his grandson Nausithous having taken 
part in the great Titanic conspiracy against Jupiter 
shared the fate of his brother giants. His subjects 
were either put to the sword or dispersed, some 
of them escaping to people the island of Scheria 
(Corfu). *The fascinating nymph Calypso is said to 
have had two residences in these islands, viz., one 
in Malta and the other in Gozo, at one or both 
of which she entertained Ulysses on his return 
from the siege of Troy whilst his wife Penelope 
was waiting for him at home and usefully employ- 
ing herself with plain needlework and shirtmaking. 
But to pass from fiction to reality. At a very 
early date probably about 1400 B. C. those daring 
sailors the Phoenicians who have been well styled 
" the English of antiquity " colonised the island, 
changing its name from Hyperia to Ogygia, Some 
authors give the year 1519 B. C, as the date of 
their arrival. They speedily rendered Malta flour- 
ishing and prosperous. 

Traces of their occupation are still to be seen 
in the ruined temples of Hagiar Khem and Mnai- 
dra near Krendi, the Giants' Tower in Gozo> and 
of Melcarte, the Tyrian Hercules " dispeller of evils " 



14 

near the Bay of MarsaScirocco. Some of the Phoe- 
nician inscriptions which enrich the British Museum 
have been brought to light at Bighi and elsewhere. 
The graves of this mysterious race coyer a hillside 
at Bingemma, which is by no means the only rest- 
ing place of their dead in the Maltese islands. Votive 
tablets and coins have also been upturned. In a 
tomb near Benghisa a square slab was found with 
this inscription " The inner chamber of the sanct- 
uary of the sepulchre of Hannibal, illustrious in 
the consummation of calamity. He was beloved ; 
the people lament, when arrayed in order of bat- 
tle/ Hannibal the son of Bar Malech" Of course 
many of these vestiges of antiquity belong to the 
second period of Phoenician occupation, when Carth- 
age ruled supreme in these seas. * 

Diodorus SJculus says : " There are over against 
that part of Sicily whioh lies to the south, three 
islands at a distance in the sea, each of which has 
a town and safe ports for ships overtaken by 
tempest. The first called Melite, is about 800 sta- 
dia from Syracuse, and has several excellent ports. 
The inhabitants are very rich, in as much as 
they exercise many trades, and in particular they 
manufacture cloths remarkable for their softness 
and fineness. Their houses are large and splen- 
didly ornamented with projections and stucco. The 
island is a colony of the Phoenicians, who, trading 
to the Westefti Ocean, used it as a place of refuge, 
because it has excellent ports and lies in the midst 
of the sea. Next to this island is another named 
Gaulus (Gozo), with convenient harbours, which is 
also a colony of Phoenicians." An ancient tradi- 
tion asserts that the Phoenicians only took posses- 



15 

sion of the islands after a fierce struggle. They 
were no doubt attracted hither by the convenient 
position of Malta "and Gozo as commercial store- 
nouses and depots for goods. Diodorus Siculus 
speaks of Gozo as possessing good harbours, a 
statement which shews clearly that the ships of these 
hardy navigators were of no great size. 

For nearly seven centuries Punic governors ruled 
our islands in peace and the worship of Juno in 
the stately temple which stood on the spot now 
occupied by the moat of Fort St. Angelo attract- 
ed crowds of devotees, both native and foreign. But 
troublous times were at hand. Archias of Corinth 
founded Syracuse in 732 B.C., and it is probable 
that Malta changed hands soon afterwards. Some 
authors Ifowever variously give 755. B.C., and 736 
B.C., as the date of the arrival of the Grecian 
conquerors, who occupied the centre of the island, leav- 
ing the coast in possession of the natives. The 
form of government during this period was repub- 
lican, with a Senate, high Priest and two Archons. 
Demetrius, son of Diodotus of Syracuse received the 
thanks of the Republic of Malta for some signal 
services which he had rendered to the island. Gozo 
now bore the name of Gaulos, Comino that of 
Hephaestia whilst the appellation of Ogygia was 
exchanged for the well known name of Melita or 
Melissa. Some say that Malta was so called " from 
the abundance of honey they have tiere, gathered 
by the bees from the anice seeds and flowers 
thereof, which grow on this island abundantly." 0- 
thers again assert that this name was given in 
honour of the Nymph Melita, the daughter of Ne- 
reus and Doris. The learned Bochart derives the 



16 

name of Malta or Maltha from a word meaning 
"white stucco," with which according to Diodorus Siculus 
the houses of the natives were ornamented. It is 
also thought that this name is of Phoenician origin 
and derived from the same root as the Hebrew word 
Malet which signifies a refuge or asylum. 

The Greek Guulos and the Eoman Qaulum ap- 
plied to the island of Gozo, mean a cup and pro- 
bably refer to its shape. The name Hephcestia means 
" the island of Vulcan," and one author speaks of 
Comino under the name of Lampas or "the Lamp." 

The Greeks who did not live on the most 
amicable terms with the original inhabitants, greatly 
extended the trade in Maltese cotton cloths, and 
carried on a considerable commerce with Sicily. 
Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, was their firm friend 
and a district near the Boschetto still bears the name 
of Gorghenti from his once famous city. The Greeks 
erected a temple to Proserpine on the heights of 
Mtarfa, and another to Apollo with a theatre at- 
tached, close to the site of the present Sanatorium 
at Citta Vecchia, which city is honourably mentioned 
under the title of Melita. A Greek Pagos or village 
seems to have stood near the Bingemma hills, whilst 
another was situated near Zurrico. Greek coins, me- 
dals and inscriptions have also been met with in 
various places. 

About the year 480 B. C. the Carthaginians ob- 
tained possessi&n of Malta. They trafficked in marbles 
and gold from Greece, cotton from Malta, bitumen 
from Li pari, wax, honey, and slaves from Corsica, 
and iron from Elba. In the year 264 B. C. the 
First Punic War broke out and seven years after- 
wards the Consul Attilius Regulus on his way to 



17 

invade Africa took possession of Malta. After the 
defeat of Regains by the Carthaginians under Xan- 
fcippus the Lacedemonian in the following yeiar, the 
Romans? were obliged to retire and Malta again be- 
came subject to Carthage. In 242 B. C. the Con- 
sul Lutatius Catnlns gained a great naval victory 
off Trapani, and Malta amongst other islands was 
ceded to Rome. The Carthaginians, whose Punic 
faith is proverbially synonymous with treachery, soon 
returned and resumed possession. In 220 B. C. the 
historian Livy tells us (Bk. xxi. c. 51): "The con- 
sul Titus Sempronius Gracchus having dismissed Hiero 
king of Syracuse, and having left the praetor to 
defend the coast of Sicily, himself crossed from 
Lilyboeum # (now Marsala) to the island of Malta which 
was held by the Carthaginians. On his arrival Ha- 
milcar the son of Gisco, the commandant (a brother 
of the famous Hannibal) surrenders to him both the 
town and island with nearly 2000 soldiers. Thence 
after a few days he returned to Lilyboeum, and the 
prisoners taken both by the consul and the praetor 
with the exception of those illustrious for their rank 
were publicly sold as slaves." Many of the hapless 
garrison are said to have been Greeks. Thus after 
nearly three centuries of Punic rule, Malta finally 
bowed beneath the yoke of all sdbduing Rome. 

Although it is impossible to fix the date of their 
arrival with any degree of certainty, jt is neverthe- 
less beyond doubt that the Egyptians had for- 
merly settlements here. This is evident from the 
rock chambers discovered in the year 1847 at the- 
distance of three fourths of a mile from Citta Vec- 
chia, in the district of Kasani il Genieni, from the 

2 



18 

Sarcophagi of terra cotta found at Ghar Barca and 
from other objects preserved in the Malta Museum. 
These Egyptian settlers were, it is thought, con- 
temporaneous with the Phoenicians. In 1694 a golden 
plate covered with Egyptian hieroglyphics was found 
near Citta Vecchia and given to Cardinal Cantani Arch- 
bishop of Naples. 

The Eomans treated the inhabitants of the Maltese 
islands, many of whom were of Grecian origin, with 
great kindness, permitting them to continue their 
ancient customs and to be governed by their own 
laws. Malta retained its name of Melita, and to- 
gether with Gozo was raised to the rank of a Roman 
Municipium, so that the inhabitants enjoyed either 
wholly or in part the privileges of Eoman citi- 
zenship. Many coins and inscriptions have oeen found 
especially in Gozo, which prove that the Romans 
did much to restore and beautify the temples of the 
gods and to enlarge the theatre at Citta Vecchia. 
The Government was administered by a Propraetor whose 
actions were controlled by the Praetor of Sicily'. 
Commerce and manufactures were encouraged and 
Maltese cotton cloths were looked upon as articles 
of luxury at Rome. The temple of Juno in Malta 
was an object of great veneration both to natives 
and foreigners. Even the very pirates who used to 
winter in our harbours refrained from laying sacri- 
legious handst upon its treasures. But the tempta- 
tion proved too strong for Verres the avaricious praetor 
of Sicily, as we know from the orations of Cicero, 
(in Verrem. iv. 46.) One of the Generals of Massi- 
nissa King of Numidia took from this temple some mas- 
sive pieces of exquisitively carved ivory and presented 
them to his sovereign, who accepted them not knowing 



19 

whence they had come from. On learning the truth, the 
king at once restored them with all due solemnity. 
This story Cicero did not fail to turn to good ac- 
count when detailing the iniquities of the rapacious 
Verres. 

Some remains of a vast mole of Roman work- 
manship have been discovered near the head of the 
Grand Harbour. In the year 58 B. C. the ship- 
wreck of St. Paul, recorded by St. Luke, is believed 
to have taken place in the bay which bears his name. 
Tradition assigns February 10th as the date of this 
important event. It is said that during the three 
months' stay of the Apostle in these islands he con- 
verted the inhabitants and his fellow voyagers to 
the faith • of Christ; the dwellers at Naxaro being 
the first to receive Christian baptism. On his de- 
parture for Rome he is reported to have consecrated 
St. Publius who afterwards suffered martyrdom at 
Athens, as first Bishop of the Church in Malta. 

In 337 A. D. the Roman Empire was divided 
amongst the three sons of Constantino the Great, 
viz., Constantino, Constantius and Constant. Malta, 
with Italy, Illyria, and Africa was assigned to the 
latter. The Empire, reunited under Theodosius, was 
at his death again divided between his sons, Honorius 
reigning in the West, and Arcadius in the East. 
The dominions of Arcadius comprised the whole of 
Greece, Egypt, the provinces of Western Asia, and 
the islands of the Mediterranean. Malta therefore 
for several centuries formed part of the Eastern Roman, 
or, as it was afterwards called, the Byzantine Em- 
pire. 

Some historians assert that first the Vandals and 
afterwards the Goths made themselves masters of 



20 

Malta, but that the latter were expelled by Belisarius 
in the year 534 A. D. This is however somewhat 
doubtful. For 475 years, viz., from 399 A. D. to 
870 A. D. the Maltese islands, concerning which 
during this period little or nothing is known seem 
to have remained as dependencies of the Eastern 
Empire. 

The Arabs were the next to take possession 
of Malta. Tradition recounts various predatory in- 
cursions at an earlier date, but it seems certain 
that in the year 870 A. B. they made a descent 
upon Gozo from whence they crossed over to the 
larger island. All the Greeks- to the number, it is 
said, of 3000, were put to the sword, and 3614 women 
and children sold for 5000 pieces of gold. The 
government of the island was assumed by an Arab- 
ian Emir. Some historian say that the Arabs 
treated the Maltese inhabitants with great kindness, 
allowing them the free exercise of their religion, but 
from other evidence it seema far more probable 
that Christianity was proscribed here as elsewhere, 
and that the Christians were obliged to assemble 
for worship in crypts, catacombs, and similar places. 
The catacombs at Citta Veoohia are believed by 
many to have been excavated during this period. 
The Arabs altered the name of Citta Yecchia 
from Melita to Medina or the "Great City," streng- 
thened its ' fortifications, and diminished its area, 
so as to render it more capable of defence. In 
order to protect the Great Harbour they erected 
a castle on the site of the present Fort St. Angek>. 
Arabic coins and a stone on which is a touching 
epitaph have been discovered together with other 
relics of Arab dominion. But the moat lasting 



21 

memorial which remains to us is the Maltese lan- 
guage of which the late Mr. Schlienz says " that 
all its words, with the exception of a very few 
are purely Arabic and conform in every respect to 
the rules, nay even to the anomalies of the Arabic 
grammar. " This remark applies more fully to Gozo 
and the casals or villages than to Valletta. The Arab 
rulers and their Maltese subjects frequently sallied 
forth from their harbours bent on piracy and plun* 
dor. The Byzantine Emperors in vain endeavoured 
to check their ravages, and on one occasion their 
admirals Nicetas and Manianes were put to flight, 
although in command of a considerable force* 

But in the year 1090, Count Roger, the son of 
Tancred de Hauteville, after almost entirely expell- 
ing the Arabs from Sicily arrived in Malta, where 
he was 'gladly welcomed by the Christian natives as 
a deliverer. After a short siege the city of Medina 
fell into his hands. The terms of sarrender were that 
the Emir should have full liberty to quit the 
island, together with his property and all those who 
wished to share his fortunes; that a certain number 
of horses, mules and warlike stores should be given 
up ; that all Christian slaves should be set at liberty ; 
and that the Arabs who chose to remain in the 
island should pay an annual tribute. Many Arabs 
continued to reside in Malta until the year 1243, A. D. 
when by order of the Emperor Frederick, they 
were conveyed to Nocera in Apulia. 

Count Roger erected a fortress at Citti Vecchia 
which was afterwards dismantled by royal authority 
in 1455, strengthened "the Castle on the Rock" now 
Fort St. Angelo, and rebuilt the ruined Cathedral 
in the ancient capital. Malta having been for 220 years 



22 

without a regular succession of bishops, Count Roger 
presented to Pope Urban II. a pious priest named 
Walter (Gualtieri) for consecration. He also establi- 
shed in Malta a Popular Council for the government 
of the people, composed of nobles, clergy, and 
elected members. The Arabs were treated with 
lenity, and allowed to issue gold coins with the 
motto " There is but one God and Mahomet is the 
Prophet of God " and on the reverse tf King 
Roger. " The Arms and Standard of Malta consist- 
ing of the two colours white and red were grant- 
ed by Count Roger, and were taken from his own 
escutcheon. Having settled the affairs of Malta, 
the Count returned to Sicily taking with him many 
liberated Christian slaves, and died at Mileto in 
Calabria at the age of 70 in the year 1101. A. D. 
The Arabs who had not quitted the islrfhd were 
not content to remain as a subject race. Accord- 
ingly in the year 1122, they conspired to massa- 
cre the Christians whilst the latter were occupied 
with the religious services of Holy Week. The 
plot was discovered, and the Christians attacked 
their would-be assassins at the fountain known as 
Ghain Clieb (on the roadside between Citti Vecchia and 
Bingemma), with shouts of "Kill the Dogs," from 
whence the fountain derives its present name of 
" the Dogs' veil. " Overpowered, the Arabs fled 
to a natural stronghold called Kalaa tal Bahria or 
" the fortress on the shore " where they held out 
for some time, •-until King Roger I arrived from 
Sicily with a fleet, and compelled them to surren- 
der. Some of the chief conspirators were put to 
death and others banished to Barbary. 



23 

In spite of strenuous efforts made by the By- 
zantine Emperor Emmanuel Commenus in 1114, A. D. 
Malta remained subject to King Soger. During 
the reign of his son King Tancred, Malta and Gozo 
became a County and Marquisate. William the Fat, 
Grand Admiral of Sicily was one of its lords. By 
the marriage of Constance, the posthumous daughter 
of King Roger I, to Henry II. Emperor of Ger- 
many, the son of the famous Frederic Barbarossa, 
Malta and Gozo passed under German rule for 72 
years. In the year 1224 the inhabitants of Celano 
in Calabria were transported hither, and did much 
to improve the condition and increase the pro- 
sperity of the island. 

During the reigns of Henry YI. and his son 
Frederic II. the Maltese earned great renown at sea. 
Under the command of a native admiral they 
attacked and destroyed a squadron of the Republic 
of Pisa which was threatening Syracuse, took the 
island of Candia from the Venetians, after destroy- 
ing their fleet, and taking prisoner their admiral 
Andrea Dandalo. The battle of Benevento on Febr. 
26th. 1266, placed Charles of Anjou on the throne 
of Naples and Sicily .and put an end to the rule 
of the German Emperors in Malta. In 1282, the 
terrible massacre known as the Sicilian Vespers 
took place and Peter III. King of Aragon was 
crowned King of Sicily with the title of Peter I. 
It is said on insufficient grounds that the plot 
from which the Sicilian Vesper! resulted was 
arranged in Malta. A fierce contest took place off 
the mouth of the Grand Harbour which decided 
the fate of Malta. The French admiral whose 
name is variously given as William Corner, Cor* 



24 

niero, Corneille, and Cornri was defeated and slain, 
and the Aragonese fleet entered the Marsamuscefcto 
Harbour . in triumph. The town surrendered at 
discretion, and was obliged to furnish provisions 
as well as 2,500 crowns by way of contribution. 

Charles of Anjou ruled over the islands for 18 
years during which period the condition of the 
inhabitants was pitiable in the extreme. Nor was 
it improved under the government of the Arago- 
nese monarchs. During the whole of this period 
the Popular Council established by Count Roger 
retained its influence. Its members were elected 
from the clergy, nobles, honourable citizens, pro- 
fessors of arts and liberal sciences, .traders, and 
artizans. Each head of a family possessed the 
franchise. The superior clergy and the . proprietors 
were also represented, and the casals each sent 
from one to three deputies to the Assembly. Amongst 
other privileges this Popular Council used when 
the See was vacant to present three names to 
the Sovereign one of whom was to be ap- 
pointed Bishop. The Genoese led by Tommaso 
Morchio attacked Malta in 1371. 

Over and over again wer.e these islands given 
as a fief or mortgaged by the Kings of Aragon or 
by the Castilian monarchs who succeeded them in 
the year 1412. The Maltese were terribly oppressed 
by their feudal lords and complained with justice to 
Prince Louis son of King Peter II. A solemn pledge 
was given at Messina on Oct. 7th. 1350, that the 
Maltese Islands should be united in perpetuity to 
Sicily, and that the inhabitants should enjoy the same 
privileges as those of any other city in the king- 
dom. Also that under no pretext of lordship should 



25 

the islands be transferred to any private person. These 
promises were speedily broken. King Martin soon 
afterwards mortgaged or sold Malta and Gozo first 
to Don Antonio Cordova, Viceroy of Sicily in 1420, 
and afterwards in 1425 to Don Gonsalvo Monroi, a 
wealthy Spaniard, for 30,000 golden florins, (about 
£15,000). Monroi and his family ruled the island 
for two years until the natives weary of his oppres- 
sions determined to make a vigorous effort for free- 
dom. They therefore rose against him, seized his 
ships, and forcibly carried off his wife Dame Con- 
stance as a hostage. They then offered to repay the 
sum for which the islands had been mortgaged. The 
offer was accepted, the money was paid, and King 
Alfonso confirmed the previous grant of 1850 by a 
decree signed at Valencia on June 20th, 1428, which 
conferred upon the Maltese the same privileges as 
those enjoyed by the oitizens of Palermo, Messina, 
and Catania. On this occasion the ancient capital 
received the name of Notabile. King Alphonso hav- 
ing spoken of it as " Jocale Notabile regiae coronee,'' 
the brightest jewel of his crown. 

Until the year 1530, no other cession of the 
islands took place. In 1427 an army of Moors 18,000 
strong invaded Malta, and were pressing the gar- 
rison hard, when, it is said, that St. Paul, accom- 
panied by St. George and St. Agatha completely 
routed and dispersed the enemy. 

Plague followed in the train of war, and the po- 
pulation of Malta which before the Moorish invasion 
amounted to 24,000 whilst Gozo had 8,000 inhabi- 
tants, was terribly diminished and the survivors left 
in great poverty and misery. About this time mea- 
sures were taken to provide an efficient militia and 



y 



26 

also a cavalry force, 200 strong. The Maltese were 
forbidden to arm ships under a penalty of 1000 
florins. On April 16th, 1431, King Alphonso, in con- 
sideration of the poverty of Malta and Gozo granted 
them full exemption from custom house dues in 
Sicilian ports. In 1466 the Jews resident in Malta, 
petitioned that they might no longer be under the 
jurisdiction of the Hakem or Captain of the Bod at 
Citta Vecchia, and that they might cease to wear 
the Little Red Whetl. This was a round piece of 
red cloth which men and women alike were obliged 
to wear constantly on their breasts, as a distinctive 
badge of nationality, under a penalty of 15 days 
imprisonment. Their requests were denied, and in 
the year 1492, King Alphonso banished them from 
Malta and the rest of his dominions. The 70 oz. of 
gold, which was the University's share of the pro- 
perty of the Hebrews was applied by that body on 
Sept. 14th. 1513, to the repair of the castle in the 
Great Harbour. 

From 1467 to 1470 Malta suffered greatly from 
drought, no rain having fallen for three successive 
years. In the year 1488 eleven Turkish galleys landed 
men in the Marsamuscetto Harbour and made an 
unexpected attack upon the Borgo, plundering it, and 
carrying off 80 of the inhabitants as slaves. In con- 
sequence of this surprise, the Tower of St. Elmo 
was ordered to be constructed, consisting of a small 
fort with a sallow ditch of which more hereafter. 
In 1519 the plague again made its appearance 
and in 1526 some Moors landing by night near Ben- 
uarrat, plundered the village of Musta, carrying off 
400 captives into slavery, amongst whom were a bride 
and a party of wedding guests. The relatives of the 



27 

prisoners were obliged to reduce themselves to po- 
verty in order to ransom their unhappy kinsmen. 

But brighter days were at hand. On January 
1st. 1523, the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem left 
Rhodes for ever, after having made such a gallant 
defence against an immense Turkish force as to cause 
the Emperor Charles V. to exclaim " There never 
was anything so well lost as Rhodes/' Into the pre- 
vious history of this famous Order it would be foreign 
to our purpose to enter, and the reader is referred 
to Malta and its Knights, by Lieut. Col. Porter, R. E. 
the Sea Kings of the Mediterranean, by the Rev. C. 
F. Townsend, Malta Past and Present, by the Rev. 
H. Seddall, and the Storia di Malta by Dr. G. A. 
Vassallo, the histories of Boisgelin, Vertot, Bosio, and 
other kindred works. Suffice it here to say that from 
the erection of a small hospital at Jerusalem in the 
year 1050 A. D. gradually developed that famous and 
illustrious Order of Knighthood which long formed 
one of the bulwarks of Christendom against the sword 
of Islam. 

Expelled from Palestine in 1291, the Knights re- 
tired to Cyprus, from whence in 1310 they removed 
to hardly won Rhodes. Driven forth once more, as 
we have seen in the year 1523, they wandered in 
search of an asylum for nearly seven years until at 
length by a deed of gift signed at Castel Franco 
near Bologna, and confirmed by the Pope on the 
25th of the following month, Charles V, Emperor 
of Germany granted "to the Most Reverend the Grand 
Master and the Knights of St. John, as a noble, 
free and uncumbered fief the castles, fortresses, and 
towns of Tripoli, Malta, and Gozo, with their entire 
jurisdiction, both civil and military, with no other 



/ 



28 

condition than that they should annually on the day 
of All Saints, (Nov. 1st.) present a falcon to the 
Viceroy of Sicily, in the name of the Order." L'Isle 
Adam the hero of Rhodes and 44th Grand Master 
of the Order also agreed that the Knights should never 
make war against the Emperor or the kingdom of 
Sicily; that the Emperor should select the Bishop 
of Malta from three candidates chosen by the Or- 
der, one of whom mast be a Spanish subject; 
that the admiral of the fleet or his lieutenant should 
always be an Italian; and that the Order should not 
be able to transfer the sovereignty of the island 
to any other power without the consent of the Em* 
peror. 

The Maltese might, in accordance with the decree 
of 1428 before mentioned, have resisted the ces- 
sion of their island home to the Knights, but as 
the latter solemnly swore to observe and keep in- 
violate all their ancient laws and privileges they after 
some little demur received them with open arms. An 
oath to the same effect was taken by each Grand 
Master on his entry into office. The University or 
governing body relinquished in favour of the Order 
the sum of 80,000 florins due to it from the royal 
treasury. 

Commissioners sent by the Knights to examine 
their new possession reported that Malta was about 
60 miles in circuit, that it was but an arid rock 
covered in many places with sand, and here and there 
with a small amount of soil, without river, rivulet, 
or spring. That the inhabitants were dependent for 
their water supply on tanks and a few brackish wells, 
that the supply of corn was insufficient for the 
people, some 12,000 in number, that wood was sold 



29 

by the pound, that dried cowdung and thistles were 
in general use as fuel. The houses of the people were 
miserable huts, the old capital and its fortifications 
crumbling to decay, whilst the two or three guns 
of Fort St. Angelo were insufficient for the defence 
of the little town which had grown up around it. 
Figs, melons, fruits, cotton, cummin, honey, and locust 
beans were its principal productions. Gozo with a 
population of 5,000 and defended by one ruinous for- 
tress was described as being smaller, but in comparison 
with Malta fertile and pleasant. Pirates and sea rovers 
made constant attacks upon both islands. The natives 
wore quilted cotton vests thick enough to stop an 
arrow, or even sometimes to turn a bullet. 

Th^ magnificent harbours and the central position 
of the islands were irresistible temptations to the 
Knights of St. John, and after arranging for the estab- 
lishment of a mint in Malta and for the importation 
of corn from Sicily duty free, 1/ Isle Adam and his 
knights took possession of their new dominions 
on October 26th 1530 with a squadron composed of the 
three galleys, S. Croce, S* Filippo, and S. Giovanni, 
a galiot and a brigantine. 

Only in briefest outline can we sketch the residence 
of the Knights of St. John in Malta. The members 
of this illustrious Order were divided into three classes, 
the first being styled Knights of Justice, who were obli- 
ged to produce proofs of nobility. None but those who 
had already received the honour of knighthood were 
eligible for this class. The second class which was 
composed of ecclesiastics was subdivided into Conven- 
tual Chaplains who were attached to the Church of 
St. John, the Hospital, and the Galleys, and the Priests 
of Obedience who were not obliged to reside in Malta 



30 

but were attached to some of the churches belonging 
to the Order or under the authority of a Grand Prior 
or Commander. The third class was composed of 
servants at arms and brothers de stage or donate. 
The former of these were esquires and eligible for 
the honour of knighthood. The latter were menial 
servants who wore the demi-cross, but who never- 
theless possessed many privileges. Bach knight took 
the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, none 
of which, in later times, were scrupulously observed. 
There were also houses of Religious Dames of the 
Order of St. John of Jerusalem in France, Italy, and 
Spain, admission into which was reserved for ladies 
of most ancient and noble lineage. 

The Ursuline nuns in Malta received from the 
Order an annual pension of £51. 18. 10. The nuns 
of Toulouse, received £ 73. 0. 0. and those of Martel 
in Querci, £ 29. 10. 6. annually. 

The knights were divided into eight Languages, 
viz., Provence, Auvergne, France, Germany, Italy, Ar- 
agon, Castile, England, and Portugal. At the Reformation 
the Language of England was suppressed, the Anglo- 
Bavarian Language being substituted for it in the 
year 1784. Each of these Languages had its own 
Palace or Auberge, presided over by a chief called 
the Pilier, who received from the treasury either money 
or an equivalent in grain for the supply of hid Auberge. 
All members of the Order of whatever grade might 
eat in their respective Auberges but Commanders 
seldom did so, and those holding Commanderies worth 
£ 200 per annum or servants at arms holding Com- 
manderies of more than £ 100 per annum were 
not admitted. 



31 

The Pilier of each Auberge found his dignity 
somewhat costly, and was usually rewarded with the next 
vacant Coram andery. The nondining members received an 
allowance in money. The Grand Master presided over 
the Great Council which was composed of the 54 
Grand Crosses of the Order. Besides this, there were 
other tribunals with less authority, and the Grand 
Master had numerous important offices in his gift. 

To each Language were attached various lucrative 
Bailiwicks, Commanderies and Priories, the attain- 
ment of which was naturally an object of ambition. 
Letters were addressed to the Grand Master (whose 
office was elective) thus: "To his Most Eminent High- 
ness the Grandmaster/ 7 and in official documents he 
was styled "Most Eminent and Beverend Signor Grand 
Master/* 

The general income of the Order was derived 
from Besponsions or fixed contributions from the 
various Commanderies and Priories belonging to 
the Order in various countries, which produc- 
ed about £ 47,520 annnally. Two years income 
of Commanderies vacant by death brought in nearly 
£21,472. Fees paid by all admitted into the Order or 
receiving promotion in it amounted to £20,334 per 
annum. Four fifths of the income of deceased knights, 
was estimated at £24,755 yearly. The first year's 
revenues of certain Commanderies was reckoned at 
£477 per annum. Priory and other presents £197. 
The sale of forest trees on the estates of the Order 
(mostly in France) £4,798. Benounced pensions, va- 
rious foundations, rent of houses, Ac. £7,630. One 
per cent of the value of the goods stored at the 
Lazaretto produced annually £130. The Government 
Printing Press and the sale of a permission granted 



32 

by Papal Bull to eat eggs and batter during Lent 
realized £1,055 yearly. The ransom of Turkish slaves 
brought in on an average £7,661. Omitting other 
items, we may estimate the annual general income 
of the Order between 1778 and 1788 at £136,417. 
The expenditure included — Ambassadors £3,802, 
Receivers in various countries £6,643. The Conven- 
tual Churches £2,991. Alms given to the Capuchins,, 
clothing to all liberated Christian slaves passing through 
Malta, allowances of bread and meat for services 
rendered to the Order, £140 given to the infirmary 
at Floriana, and a yearly distribution of 600 qrs. 
of corn and £245 in money amounted to £1,730. 
The Great Hospital cost £7,947, and that for women 
£2017. Foundlings and children of poor parents £614. 
Pensions £4,032. Nuns of the Order £154. The # 
Navy and the Port cost £47,494; the Land Forces* 
and fortifications £17,303, and Public works £3,454. 
The Grand Master received annually £ 600 in aid 
of his table and £20 towards the repairs of palaces. 
Each member of the Order was allowed annually 4 
qrs. of wheat, 9 gallons of oil, and £4. 8s. in money, 
amounting in all to some £15. Clothing was allowed 
annually varying in value from £2 4s. for a knight 
to lis. for a novice. The falcons presented yearly 
to the Viceroy of Sicily and the Kings of France, 
Spain, Portugal, and Naples, involved an expence of 
£103. Public offices £1,002. Slaves and slave prisons 
£4,275. Convey&nce of letters, £2,036. Maintenance of 
state silver plate £327. Workshops and magazines 
£ 1,826. These and other items make the aver- 
age annual expenditure £ 128,533. The Grand Mas- 
ters received £29,689 in 1797 from the' Treasury 
of which £2,527 were expended for the direct be- 



33 

nefit of the inhabitants. The yearly expenses of the 
Grand Master for himself, his household, bodyguards 
and state attendants for the same year was £13,861. 
Altogether the Order spent for the benefit of Malta 
not more than £200,000. These figures are taken' from 
the valuable pamphlet of W. H. Thornton, Esq., 
formerly Auditor General. 

The Revenue for 1880 is estimated at £176,800, 
derived from Customs, £ 115,100; Land sales, £ 100; 
Land Revenue £14,700, Bents exclusive of Land 
£22,140. Licenses £3,020; Postage £140; Fines/For- 
feitures, and Court fees £5,710; Fees of Office £1,290. 
Reimbursements to Government £ 2,600; Interest 
£8,370; Special Receipts £3,580. Estimated Expen- 
diture, Establishments £76,657; Works £20,734; Other 
Services %65,60S; Sanitary Office £690. When we 
add to this the enormous amount spent annually by 
English resident* and visitors, by the fleet and gar- 
rison, and by the numerous ships which crowd our har- 
bours, we shall seeat a glance that financially, as indeed 
in many other respects Malta has no cause to regret 
the vanished dominion of the " White Cross- 
Knights." 

Greatly to the regret of I/Isle Adam, the Em- 
peror Charles V. insisted that the Order should under- 
take the defence of Tripoli in addition to that of 
Malta. On November 13th, 1J80 the Grand Master 
made his public entry into Citt& Vecchia, and for* 
mally commence^ his government. One of the first 
cares of the Order was to take possession of the 
Church of San Lorertzo in the Borgo as the Con- 
ventual Church of the Order, and to establish a Hospi- 
tal. I/Isle Adam did much to strengthen the fortifica- 
tions, and died at Citti Yecchia in 1534 at the age 

3 



34 

of 85, revered and betotred by all over whom he 
ruled. His remains wdre . interred in the chapel of 
Fort St. AngelOj from whence they were subsequently 
removed to St. -John'ft Church. 

In this year Henry VIIL confiscated the 
possessions of the Order m England. Many of the English 
knights died on the scaffold or in prison, others 
abjured, the Order, and the rest fled to Malta where 
they met with a. most kindly reception, and were 
allowed to retain all the dignities attached to their 
Language. The post of the English knights during 
the Great Siege was between those of Gastile and 
Germany. A Turkish fleet of 10 sail threatened 
Malta and landed troops who penetrated as far as 
Gasal Gudia, but the invaders were obliged to re- 
tire to Comino " the nest and lair of S&raoens " 
where they waited in vain for a chance toi plunder. 
-The knights did not fail to make reprisals in va- 
rious directions. Tn 1540 the celebrated corsair Dragut 
first attacked the island, and eleven years afterwards 
fiinam Pasha after threatening the Borgo made a descent 
upon ; Gozo, and committed great ravages. In May 
1553 the Forts of St. Michael and St. Elmo were 
oompleted, as well as" some bastions at the head of 
the Borgo. 

During the fatal expedition of Charles V. against 
Algiers in 1546 the^ Order lost eighty knights and 
four hundred soldiers. During a terrible storm, Charles 
V. exclaimed: *" They must . indeed be Maltese gal- 
leys to outride such a tempest/ 7 The Grand Master 
Claude de La Sengle in 1554 -enclosed the whole of 
St. Michael's Mount with a line of fortifications within 
which soon arose the town of Senglea, called after 
its founder or defender. 



35 

Three years before Tripoli had been captured by 
Dragut, and its brave defender De Yalier stripped 
of his habit and imprisoned in deference to popular 
clamour. On the night of Oct. 23rd, 1555 a sudden 
and unexpected storm sank four galleys, in the > Pock- 
yard Creek, then known as the Port .of the Galleys, 
600 slaves and two knights being drowned. Early 
in 1556 Dragut effected a landing in the Bay of Marsa 
Sciroeco, but was. repulsed. In the following year 
a Maltese knight boarded a Turkish galley, and, grid- 
ing escape impossible, boldly set fire to some gun- 
powder, and was blown to pieces with the ship. 

The Maltese Admiral Romegaa having captured 
many prizes at sea the Sultan swore "by his own 
head " to be revenged and to make himself master, of 
Maltaatfcll costs. Fortunately for the Order they had 
»t their head a> true hero. • The name of La Vai- 
lette is synonymous with genius, cpurage, and piety,, 
and When on the 18th of May, 1565 the -Turkish 
fleet of 130 resets besides £0 smaller craft, and a 
number of storeships, having: j on .board 38,300 men, 
6000 6f whom were; janisaari^s, and 63 guns of 
large calibre hove in sight the knights, 474 ift number 
with 67 servants $t arms, and 8,155 soldiers weip 
not taken) by surprise. The atarshaped Foyt ,S,t. 
Elmo Was almost the first pdint of attack. Glorious 
indeed is. the story of its defence* The first attack 
was made on May Slrft, but it w*s not until June 
22nd 'that the' victorious Cresoent floated above its 
ramparts, land the Ottoman fleet entered the Marsa- 
museetto Harbour.. "What may we not expect the 
parent to cost us when we have .purchased the child 
at such a price!" exclaimed the Pacha Mustapha as 
he examined the fortifications on the other side. of the 



36 

harbour, . of which a knight said " this is the place 
which we mean to surrender to the Bashaw ana we 
reserve it on purpose to bury him and his janissaries!" 
But why prolong the story ? The Turks .dragged 
boats across the isthmus which separates ,the two has* 
hours, tried to destroy the stockade which closed 
the entrance of the French Greek, repeatedly attacked 
and almost carried by assault Fort St. Michael and 
the Bastion of Castile, and did all that brave men 
could do, but in vain. 

On the 7th of September, a day ever since memo* 
rable in the annals of Malta, tardy succours arrived 
from Sicily, and landed in Melleha Bay. An engage- 
ment took place near MuSta, after whioh the Turks 
quitted the island with all speed, having lost bo 
less than 25,000 men., whilst on the aider of the 
Order 200 knights, 2500 soldiers, and 7000 inhabitants 
had lost their lives. The Borgo received the proud 
title of " CStta Vifctoriosa" or " the Victorious City/' 
whilst Senglea has ever since been styled "Invictta" 
or u Unconquered." The Turks prepared fresh ar- 
maments but incendiaries in the pay of La VaUette 
destroyed ihe arsenals at Constantinople, and Malta 
was left in peace. On Thursday, March 28th, 1566, 
La VaUette laid the foundation stone of the city 
which has ever since borne his name. The duly 
sum expended for building purposes varied from 
£150 to £200, and CittA Notabile thence forward 
bore its present name of Citta Veochia, On August 
21st, 1568 La VaUette died, lamented and honoured, 
from the effects of a sunstroke. His grave is m 
the Church of St. John. 

On March 17th, 1570, the Order removed from 
the Borgo to the new City. Each Language had 



37 

its own post to defend! and its own Atiberge or 
palace. In 1570 Admiral St Clement was defeated' 
near Girgenti by a Turkish squadron, but. on Oct. 
7th, in the following year Maltese galleys took part 
in the great victory of Lepanto. In 1575, the In- 
quisition was established in Malta, and detained its 
power until the arrival of the French in 1 798- The 
Grand Master John de La Cassiere (1572-1582) ep> 
polled all Jews from the islands, and tried to. remove 
from Valletta all women of bad character, . In 1582 
the city of Valletta contained 2000 houses* there 
were on the ramparts 150 brass guns, besides 12 
mounted at St. Angelo, 20,000 qrs,. of wheat were 
imported annually from Sifcily, and Malta produced 
about 100 casks of wine yearly. The Maltese strictly 

E»rforme& their religious duties, but, adds the Pope's 
egate "Would to God the same could be said of 
the knights! " Daring this year, we are told by 
Dr. Vassallo, that ■ a dispute having arisen between. 
Bishop Gargallo and the - Canons of the Cathedral 
at Citta Vecchia,. the Bishop seized the Canons in 
the Cathedral, dragged , them, arrayed in full canon-: 
ioals, behind his horses to the prisons of the Borgo, 
and confiscated their property. For this high handed 
proceeding the Bishop was justly condemned by the 
Pope to suspension, banishment, and fine. 

The Turks having again carried off slaves from 
Gozo the Grand Master Cardinal Verdala erected 
fortifications for the protection of the western por~ 
tion of. the island. In 1592 some Tnscan galleys 
coming from the Levant introduced the plague to 
which 8,800 fell victims. The population of Malta 
and Gozo in 1590 was 30,500. The Jesuits were 
first introduced into Malta in 1593. 



38 

In 1 601 a successful attack was m&de by the gal- 
leys upon Lepanto and Patras> and in 1614 the 
Turks again landed in the Bay of Marsa Scitocco. 
Oh April 21st of the same year the Grand Master 
Alofio de "Wignacourt completed the aoqueduct which 
has ever since been such a priceless boon to Malta, 
and admitted the water to the fountain in St. George's 
Square, amidst great public rejoicings.. In 1619 
some of the young knights raised ja riot, and were 
with difficulty prevented from throwing an unpopu- 
lar suffragan bishop into the Maflsatnuscetto Harbour. 
This would indeed have been throwing cold water 
on the episcopate! 

The Grand Master Alofio de Wignacourt built 
a tower for the protection of Comino, and at his 
death in 1622 left to the Order the large sum of 
£20 ,460 besides 200 slaves and 4000 qrs. of corn. 
A few months afterwards the Bifehop of Malta re- 
moved his official residence from Oitta Tecchia to 
Valletta, not without considerable opposition from 
the Grand Master Vascon cellos. In 1623 the 
island was slightly visited by the plague. In 1631 
the last General Chapter but one was held. Of this 
assembly the Grand Master Pinto said : " Were I 
king of France I would never assemble the States 
General; were I the Pope I would never convoke 
a Council, being the head of the Order of St. John 
I want no General Chapters. I know that these 
assemblies always end in an attack upon the rights 
of those who have convened them." The last Ge- 
neral Chapter was held in 1776. 

According to the census taken in 1632 the total 
population amounted to 54,463 persons. There were 
4171 cattle, and 2132 beasts of burden. The produce 



39 

of that year was 5289 qrs. of wheat, and of other 
kinds of corn 29,776 qrs. In 1636 the fortifications 
of Floriana were commenced, which are named after 
Col P, P. Floriani an Italian engineer. After two* 
years labour and an expenditure of £8000 the lines 
were left unfinished, and were not finally completed 1 
for nearly a century. In 1688 the defences of Margarita 
Hill were commenced, under the auspices of Father 
Firenzuola. Want of funds compelled the suspension 
of the work until the year 1716. An attempt was' 
made in 1639 to revive the language of England, but 
the troubles between Charles I. and his Parliament 
put an end to the design. Tumults having arisen 
the Jesuits were for a short time expelled from Malta 
in 1639, and six years afterwards a riot of the Maltese 
women took place at Cittd Vecchia in consequence 
of a proposal to dismantle that ancient stronghold. 

The year 1644 witnessed the capture at sea of 
the Great Turkish Galleon, an event which is still 
often mentioned with pride by the Maltese. In 1650 
the Public Library first had a beginning, and about 
this time the islands of St. Christopher, St. Bartholo- 
mew, St. Martin, and St. Croix in the West Indies 
were purchased by the Order for £5000. — an unfor- 
tunate speculation! 

In 1656 the Maltese galleys had a great share 
in a signal victory gained over the Turks near the 
Dardanelles. Plague and famine threatened the islands 
for some years, and to repel invaders 14 watch towers 
were generously built upon the shore by the Grand 
Master De Bedin at his own expense. On August 
28th 1670 in the Bastion of St. Nicholas the first 
stone was laid by the Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner 
of the stupendous fortifications which bear his name/ 



40 

and which are ndarty three mites in length. Some 
50 years elapsed before these works were, complet- 
ed. At the close; of tbb year 1675 the plague re* 
appeared/ and it is said that 11,300 persons perished, 
A terrible earthquake in January 11693 which last- 
ed >sbyeral days, caused great damage to buildings 
and, destroyed the Cathedral at CSttA Yecchia. It 
wad however rebuilt by the ytear 1700. 

The Grand Master Raymond Perellofe y Roocafull 
did much to increase i the navy, btrtwWn engaged 
• with a Turkish foe the flagship aank with five htindred 
men, the Admiral Spinola and a few. others escaping 
with difficulty. In 1709 the Turks attacked Gozo, 
and in 1722 they endeavoured in vain to excite a re" volt 
amongst the numerous Mahometan slaves in. 'Malta* 
The Grand Master Manoel de Vilhenb did»muoh to 
strengthen the fortifications, and built at a cost, of 
£2,500, defrayed by himself, the fort on tSe island 
in the Marsamuscetto ,or Quarantine Harbour which 
bears his name* Grand Master Pinto improved: the 
Palace, established a printing press under Govern- 
ment control, built the " Pinto Storefe" oear the Great 
Harbour, erected the Castellama or Courts of Juaticey 
finished Fort Chambray in/Goao, encouraged the 
planting of mulberry trees, and the manufacture of 
silk, built bomb t>roof shelters at Fort St. Elmb for 
women and children in the event of a siege, armed 
men of war, commenced the excavation of a dock 
and. the building of the Custom House, and suc- 
cessfully resented the interference of the King of 
Sicily in the internal aflairs of the island* 

There were in the year 1749 about 4000 Turk- 
ish or Moorish slaves in Malta and a conspiracy 
was formed amongst them to murder the knights 



on the festival of S. S. Peter and Paul (June 29th). 
The appointed signal for the rising was to be the 
exhibition of the head of the Grand Master Pinto 
from the balcony of the Palace. The plot was dis- 
covered, and about 80 of the ringleaders were pat 
to death. A great storm did much damage in 1755, 
and the church of Melleha fell, burying many persons. 
The Public Library and the Church of St. John 
ow& much to the Grand Master Pinto, who in 1768 
expelled the Jesuits, forbidding them ever to return, 
and confiscated their convent and property. In 1775 
a popular rising known as the " Rebellion of the 
Frieats'' took place against the unpopular Grand 
Master Ximenes de Texada, It was soon put downy 
and the leader Don Gaetano Mannarino was impri- 
soned, for 23 years until the arrival of the French 
in 1798. 

The Gratd Master Emmanuel de Rohan did 
much for Abiltav Amongst other benefits the law* 
of Malta were revised and embodied in the cele*- 
brated Code Rohan. In 1789 a terrible earthquake 
caused much misery and destruction in Sicily and 
Calabria, wfeeteupon the Maltese galleys at once 
pat to sea, catTying timely relief to the distressed 
inhabitants of Messina to the value of £1,703. The 
year 1784 saw the establishment at a cost of £1,405 
of the new Anglo-Bavarian Language* and the union 
of thd Order of Jerusalem ' with that of St. Ante-* 
nio of Vienna. In 1793 Port Tigni> was completed, 
at the entrance of the Quarantine Harbour. It is* 
named after the Grand Prior of Champagne who 
designed it. But the fall of the Order was at hand. 

On Septr. 19th, 1792, the National Assembly of 
Fiance decreed that the Order of Malta in France 



42 

should be entirely annulled; and its property annexed < 
to the national domains. The decrease of annual income 
at once amounted to £51,816. German and Arra* 
gonese, Spanish, Sicilian/ Portuguese, and Neapolitan 
Commanderies shared the same fate* A party which 
desired the surrender of Malta: to France was form*, 
ed in the island. The plate belonging to the men 
of war, galleys, Palace, and . Hospital was entirely 
or in pari coined into money*. The greatest economy 
was practised, and the Navy: greatly reduced* The 
deficit, however, continued to grow larger day by 
day. 

On Jane 6th,i 1798, a French fleet commanded by 
Commodore Sidoux, consisting of eighteen men of 
war and seventy transports appeared off Malta, fok 
lowed three days afterwards by a still larger one 
under Admiral Brueys, composed of 18 sail of the. 
line, €8 frigates, and more than 400 transports. 
There were 282 knights capable of bearing arms 
out of 332 who were present in Malta, besides land 
and sea forces numbering 6,800. Befused permis- 
sion to enter the harbour, the French effected a 
landing on the morning of Sunday, June 10th at 4 
a. m. at eleven different points in Malta and Gozo. 
Within the walls of Valletta all was panic and con*, 
fusion, and on the 1 2th of June a capitulation was 
signed on board the man of war L' Orient by which 
Malta was surrendered to Bonaparte. The Grand 
Master Hompench was promised his income for his 
lifetime; and French knights might return to France. 
Private property belonging to the knights was to 
be respected, and each knight was to receive an 
annual pension of 700 francs and those above 60 
years of age 1000 francs. The religion, privileges, 



43 

and liberties of the Maltese were to be respected, 
The same afternoon 15,000 French troops took 
possession of the forts, and the victorious fleet en* 
tered the harbour. Two men of war, one frigate* 
four galleys, 1200 guns, 1,500,000 lbs. of powder/ 
40,000 muskets, besides shot and shell in abund* 
ance were found in Mdlta. The weak and feeble- 
minded Grand Master • Hompesch embarked with 12 
knights on the night of June 17th on board an 
Austrian merchant ship bound for Trieste. He died 
m obscurity at Montpellier in « the year 1804. Thus 
fell the Order of St. John. 

The French at once set to work to make Malta 
a Gallic colony. Knights under sixty years of age were 
obliged to leave the island within three days, all 
coats of •arms and escutcheons were to be defaced, 
and nearly all the church plate together with that 
belonging to ithe Palace:, and the Auberges found 
its way to the crucible* On June 21st Buonaparte 
left Mafta, carrying with him the Maltese regiment, 
the Grand Master's guards, and many Maltese sailors. 
General Yaubois who was left behind with 3,053 
infantry and five companies of artillery to garrison 
Valletta carried on the work of spoliation, until at 
length on September 2nd 1798 the Maltese, exas- 
perated beyond endurance by an attempted sale of 
church property at Citt& Veoobia, rose against and 
put to the sword the 65 men who formed the gar* 
rison of the town. Next morning *> a French de- 
tachment proceeding to Citti Vecchia was compelled 
to retreat into the town by some peasants led by 
Yincenzo Borg. All Malta heroically rose in arms 
against the oppressors, and, unaided by any Euro 4 * 
pean power, formed the blockade of Valletta. At 



u 

the request of Lord Nelson to whom messengers 
were despatched by the insurgents, a Portuguese 
squadron blockaded the harbour, until the arrival of 
Lord Kelson himself. The city of Valletta was sev-= 
era! times bombarded, both by sea and land; The 
Maltese mortgaged every thing to raiBe money, and 
suffered terrible hardships, but still the French held* 
out. A plot to give up the city to the insurgents 
Was detected, and the conspirators were put to death 
without mercy. Famine and disease did their work, 
and, during the two years siege, 20,000 Maltese 
are said. to have perished. A congresa wasassem. 
bled, which sat at the Palace of St. Antonio, and of 
which Sir Alexander Ball who ■ had been left by 
Kelson to direct operations, was the, president* The 
English flag was first hoisted in Malta # at Cittd 
Vecchia on the house of Baron Gauci, at which: 
Major General Pigot was a gue&t, and at which the 
Anglo-Maltese Convention was signed. 

In Dec. 1799 Brigadier General Graham landed 
with the 30th and 89th Regiments and some ar- 
tillerymen, numbering in all 1,309 men. These were 
followed by two Neapolitan regiments, and in June 
1800, Major General Pigot took command, having 
brought with him the 48th Regiment and the two 
Battalions of the 35th Regiment. Still the French 
keld out gallantly, and made. 86,000 qrs. of wheat 
supply the garrison for two years instead <of for 
jieven months. • In September 1799 a lb. of fresh 
pork was sold in Valletta for 6*., a lb. of salt 
meat for 2*, lQd., the commonest fish for 2s. M. a 
b., a fowl cost 60s., a pigeon 10s., a lb. c£ sugar 
18s. 4d., a lb, of oofffee 21*. 8d», and a good fat rat 
j#. Id. The ships which tried to escape, from the 



45 

harbour were captured by the English fleet, and it 
was not until only four days' provisions were left 
in the fortress that General Vaubois surrendered 
Valletta to. the allied English, Maltese, and Neapo- 
litan forces. On September 8th, the anniversary of 
the defeat of the Turks, the French troops sailed 
for Marseilles in English transports, and the two 
years 1 siege came to an end. 

On February 19th, 1801 Major General Pigot 
issued a proclamation to the effect that his Britan- 
nic Majesty took the Maltese under; his protection, 
and granted them the full enjoyment of their reli- 
gion, property, and liberties. This was confirm- 
ed by Sir C. Cameron, Civil Commissioner, on June 
16th, 1801. In 1802 the English government spent 
£3,783 for the redemption of Maltese slaves at Con- 
stantinople. According to the terms of the Treaty 
of Amiens, Malta was to be restored to the Knights 
of St, John. A Maltese Langue was to be estab- 
lished, those of France and England being sap- 
pressed, and the Knglish troops were to evacuate 
the islands within three months. The Maltese at 
once despatched a deputation to Loudon to protest 
against this arrangement, and to claim either entire 
freedom or: the protection of England, The Gover- 
nor Sir Alexander J. Ball did all in his power to 
prevent thfr cession of the islands, war broke out 
once more, and in 1814, by the 7th artiele of the 
Treaty of Paris it wto declared (htit "the island 
of Malta with all its dependencies shall appertain 
in full authority and sovereignty to Sis Britannic 
Majesty/' 

The Latin inscription placed on the Main Guard 
by order of Sir Thomas Maitland has a pleasant 



46 

sound to English ears, but is nevertheless true " The 
love of the Maltese and the voice of Europe con- 
firms these islands to great and invincible Britain/ 1 
The Order of St. John of Jerusalem still exists at 
Rome, but has no longer any connection with Malta. 

" Happy is the nation that has no history," and 
our record of events since' the departure of the French 
is, fortunately, but brief. In the autumn of 1809, 
Sir Alexander J. Ball died at San Antonio, lamented 
by the whole population. Two years previously, on 
April 3rd, 1807 the magazine of Fort Bicasoli was 
blown up by some mutineers, of which more here- 
after. In 1812 the plague committed terrible ravages, 
carrying off no fewer than 4,668 persons* In 1818 Sir 
Thomas Maitkmd put an end to the Udivereiti, an an- 
cient manieSpal governing body, and also- td&e office of 
the Giurati, another of the time honoured institutions 
of Malta. 'On February 4th, 1820 six of the crew 
of the TTOZiam of Liverpool were executed for piracy, 
and hung in chains on the redoubt near Fort: Bicasoli 
which is popularly known as "the Pirated Tower." 

On May 1st, 1885 Sir Fredieriefc Ponsonby issued 
a proclamation notifying "the creation and establish^ 
ment of a Council of Government- within thifc island 
of MAlta." This Council was reforined r in ; 184^ anS 
is now composed of 18 members, IQ> of whom are 
appointed by the Crown, and the other eight elected 
by the people. The Judges of the : Superior' Court 
of' Justice ar8 ineligible,- and not more (than tWo 
ecclesiastics can be Members of Council at one and 
the same time. Member of Council are styled ''Honour- 
able. " The session commences in November and 
ends in June. 



47 

On October 25th, 1836 John Austin Esq. and 
George Cornewall Lewis* Esq. (afterwards Sir George 
Cornewall Lewis Esq* Bart.) arrived in Malta as Boyal 
Commissioners and resided in the island for some 
18 months. They recommended the abolition of the 
censorship of the press, which was accordingly effected 
by an Ordinance of: Council promulgated on March 
16th, 1839. Many changes were made in the Customs 
and other dues, the Charitable Institutions were re- or- 
ganized, Primary Education received due attention, and 
schools wete established in. the various casals or 
villages. The only, three situations reserved for English- 
men were those of Ghifef Secretary, First Assistant 
Secretary, and Auditor of Accounts. The administra- 
tion of justice was simplified, and the police 
force waft assimilated . to. that of England. In the 
year 1837, more than 4,000 persons died of cholera. 
Under the administration of Sir H. Bouverie much 
was done to make good roads, and to drain the 
Marsa at tjte upper end of the Great Harbour. The 
Dowager Queen Adelaide spent the winter of 1838 
in Malta, and on March 20th 1839 laid the foun- 
dation stone of the English Collegiate Church of St. 
Paul, which was erected at her sole expence at a 
cost of £18 v 000. 

In 1847 the Bight Honourable Richard More 
O Ferrall was appointed as Civil Governor, and two 
years afterwards a rdform took place in the Coun- 
cil of Government. Sir William Beid <the nerfrGover- 
nor, did :all in. his powetf to; raise the standard of 
education in .Malta. He also widened and restored 
Porta Beale. The foundation stone of the new struc- 
ture was laid on June .28th, 1853 by the Governor 
in the presence of the principal officers of the gar- 



48 

rison. Within the stone was placed a scroll from 
whence it appears that in 1858 the population of 
Malta and Gozo exclusive of the garrison wfcs 128,496. 
Of these 40,200 had no fixed occupation, 1,040 were 
priests and 125 nuns. There were six educational 
establishments under ecclesiastical control, 18 sup* 
ported by Government, and 156 private > schools. 
There was one English church built by the Dowager 
Queen Adelaide, two military chapels,. and one Scotch 
church. The annual revenue amounted to. £227,000, 
Sir Gaspard Le Merchant did much whilst Go* 
vernor for the improvement of education and to in- 
crease the water supply. He planted trees in various 
places, reconstructed 28 roads, widened' mpre than 
20, and made 14 new ones; During his term of 
office the lunatic asylum near Citta Vec&hia was 
completed and opened. The Ospizio op Poorhouse, 
the Hospital for Incurables, the Orphan Asylum, and 
the Central Hospital were all modified for the better, 
and it is to Sir Gaspard Le Marohant that Val- 
letta is indebted for its new Market a&d magnifi- 
eient Opera House. During this period also the public 
offices were concentrated at the Palace, telegraphic 
communication was greatly extended, the prison 
system was re-organized, alterations were introduced 
into judicial procedure, and the fonkler home of the 
Grand Masters was beautified at a cost of £1100. 
The Marsa at the head of the Great Harbour wae 
extended and deepened, the fortifications were rem* 
dered more easily defensible, the works at Pembroke 
Camp were commenced and completed, and the old 
palace of the Giurati at Citta Vecchia was converted 
into a Military Sanatarium. 



49 

In 1864 and again in 1867 Malta suffered from 
visitations of cholera, and in 1865 Sir Henry Storks 
appointed a Commission of Enquiry into the con- 
dition of Primary Education, The foundation stone 
of Holy Trinity Church Sliema was laid on September 
20th 1866, and the Church was consecrated by the 
Right Rev. Dr. Trower D. D. late Bishop of Gibral- 
tar on April 23rd 1867. On May 25th 1873 the interior 
of the Opera House was destroyed by fire. The 
consecration of the Most. Rev. Count. D. Carmelo 
Scicrana, D. D., Archbishop of Rhodes and Bishop 
of Malta took place in St. John's Church on April 
11th 1875, the Archbishop bf Reggio officiating.* 
H R. H. the Prince of Wales first visited Malta 
on July 5th 1862, again on October 30th of the 
same year* in company with the Crown Priuce and Prin- 
cess of Prussia, and also on bis return from India 
in the Serapis in April 1876. On each occasion there 
were great public rejoicings. The Palace of San Antonio 
was the residence during a portion of the year 1877 of 
the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh. The ex-Empress 
Eugenie visited the island in 1876, and T. R. H. the 
Duke and Duchess of Connaught included Malta in 
their wedding tour in 1879, 

Though the history of the islands has of late 
years been uneventful, the inhabitants have been 
prosperous and happy. In 1878 Malta was selected 
as the European place of sojourn ^of tho Indian 
Contingent. None of those who saw the great 
review on the Eloriana parade ground by H. R. H. 
the Commander in Chief, or the Levee at the Palace, 
will ever forget those imposing spectacles. On Jan. 
31st. 1880, H. M. S. Thunderer biice more left port 
4 



50 

after remaining in harbour for more than a year, 
to repair damages caused by the terrible bursting 
of one of her 38 ton guns on Jan. 12 th 1879, by 
which several valuable lives were sacrificed. Great 
atorms in Sicily and heavy weather prevented the 
arrival of the Italian mail steamers for a whole 
fortnight of the month of February 1880. Important 
reforms of the Civil Establishments of Malta, recom- 
mended in the Official Report of Sir Penrose July an 
C. B. are under consideration. The present Governor 
of Malta is H. E. Sir Arthur Borton K. C. B. 
to whom this handbook is with much respect (by 
permission) dedicated. 



LIST OF GRAND MASTERS WHO RULED IN 
MALTA FROM 1530 TO 1798. 

L'Isle Adam 1530 Martin de Redin 1657 

Peter du Pont 1534 Annet de Clermont Ges- 

san '...1660 

Didier de St. Jaille 1536 Raphael Cotoner 1693 

John J>' Omedes 1536 Gregory Oaraffa 1680 

Claude de la Sengle 1553 Adrian Wignacourt 1690 

John de la Vallette 1557 Raymond Perellos 1697 

Peter de Monte 1568 Mark Anthony Zondadaril720 

John de la Cassiere 1572 Anthony Manoel de Vil- 

Hugo de Verdall* 1582 hena 1722 

Martin Garzes 1595 Raymond D'Espuig 1736 

Alophius Wignacourt 1601 Emmanuel Pinto 1741 

Louis Mendes Vasconcellos 1 622 Ximenes de Texada 1773 

Anthony de Paule 1623 Emanuel de Rohan 1775 

Lascaris Castellar 1635 Ferdinand de Hompesch 1797 



51 



CHAPTER I. 



ity of Valletta. 



The City of V 



Situation of Valletta. — Foundation of the City. — Streets 
of stairs.— Arrangement of Streets. — Houses, Lodgings, and 
Hotels. — Boat and Carriage fares. — Postal information. — Te- 
legraph Companies. — Medical Men and Merchants. — Lines of 
Steamers, and Steam Ship Agents. — Consuls. — Weights and 
Measures. 

THE city of Valletta is situated on the north east- 
ern shore of the island, in Long. 14°. 31\ and Lat. 
35° 53\ N., and stands upon a promontory or tongne 
of land which separates the Quarantine and Great 
Harbours. This promontory bears the Arabic name 
of Mouut Sceberras, which is variously said to mean 
"the lofty place" or "the jutting out of the cape." It 
was. also formerly styled "Guardia " from the con- 
stant watch maintained here both by day and night. 
Prom its shape it has also received the English 
appellation of "The Hog's Back." Mount Sceberras, 
which projects into the sea in a north easterly direction, 
is 3200 yards in length by about 1200 in breadth, 
except at its seaward extremity where it narrows 
considerably. Its highest point is about 200 feet 
above sea level, but this elevation becomes much less 
towards its junction with the mainland. Under favou- 



52 

able circumstances the snow-clad summit of Mount 
Etna 128 miles distant may be seen from Valletta, 
and the eruptions of this volcano are distinctly visible 
at night. 

Mount Sceberras was formerly the property of 
a Maltese family of the same name, to whose re* 
presentatives the Grand Masters were accustomed to 
present annually a small coin as an acknowledgment 
of their rights. An ancient chapel formerly stood 
at the seaward extremity of Mount Sceberras dedicated 
to St. Erasmo, or St. Elmo, the patron saint of 
sailors. In 1488 a sccta.ll star-shaped fort was ord- 
ered to be erected here, which received the name of 
St. Elmo from the already existing chapel. A fort of 
the same name formerly defended the entrance to the 
harbour of Rhodes. Fort St. Elmo was •captured 
by the Turks in 1565 after a most heroic defence, 
and after the departure of the besiegers the Grand 
Master John de la Vallette determined to carry 
out his preconceived design of fortifying Mount Sceber- 
ras, and of making it the site of a flourishing city. 
Accordingly on the 28th of March 1566 the foundation 
stone of the new city was laid amidst great pub- 
lic rejoicings, on the spot whereon now stands 
the Church of Vittoria. La Vallette's name was given 
to his projected city, and he desired that the only 
epithet applied to it should be that of "Urailissima 
" Most Humble." From the day of its foundation, 
Valletta has continually increased in population and 
importance, being admirably situated for commerce, 
and strongly defended against all attacks either by 
sea or land. The history of Malta has therefore for the 
last three centuries been intimately and inseparably 
linked with that of Valletta and its sister towns. 



f 



53 

According to the cen&us of 1871 the population of Val- 
letta amounted to 24,818, the three cities of Vittoriosa, 
Cospicua, and Senglea on the other side of the Great 
Harbour having almost the same number of inhabi- 
tants. 

Many of the streets are very steep, being upon the 
sloping sides of Mount Sceberras, and are either 
broad flights of stairs, or are flanked with steps for 
the convenience of foot passengers. It was the inten- 
tion of the engineers who drew the planjs for the 
city to level the summit of Mount Sceberras, and 
to form a level platform on which the city was 
to stand, defended by ramparts, which were to be 
in great measure formed from the solid rock scarped 
down to the water's edge. False alarms of a threatened 
attack from Constantinople prevented the execution 
of this design, and only the central portion of the 
work was completed. Hence the well known lines 

"Adieu, ye joys of La Vallette. 
Adieu, scirocoo, sun, and fcweat, 
Adieu, ye cursed streets of stairs, 
How surely he who mounts you swears!" 

Under the full blaze of the July sun, to which 
however it is currently reported that only newly 
arrived Englishmen and mad dogs expose themselves, 
the streets of stairs are decidedly a weariness and 
a toil to mount ! • 

Tan- streets traverse the peninsula lengthwise, and 
are intersected at right angles by eleven others 
which, with but few exceptions Gonnect the Great? 
and Quarantine Harbours. The principal street is 
Strada Eeale whiGh runs from Porta Reale to Fort 



54 

St. Elmo, a distance of three quarters of a mile. 
Many of the best shops are situated in this street. 
Valletta was first lighted with gas in 1857. For 
commercial information we recommend all visitors 
to Malta to purchase the "Malta Almanacks" pub- 
lished annually by Mr. Critien, Bookseller, 28 Str. 
San Giovanni, and by Mr. Watson, Bookseller, 248 
Strada Beale, which contain a mass of useful inform- W 
ation. We can only note a few matters of general 
interest. I 

The houses in Malta are for the most part 
large, roomy, and convenient. The walls, especially 
those of the older house3, are of considerable thickness, 
for the sake of coolness. The roofs are flat and 
form terraces which serve to collect the rain-water, 
which is carried by pipes into underground tanks 
affording a supply during the rainless sultry days 
of summer. The terraced roofs also form a pleasant 
and favourite promenade during the summer evenings. 
The city is abundantly supplied with fresh water which 
is brought from the Bingemma Hills and their neigh- 
bourhood by means of an aqueduct more than nine 
miles in length. A great deal of attention has lately 
been directed to the question of drainage, and nume- 
rous sewers have been constructed under the su- 
perintendence of Colonel H. Wray, 0. R. E. 

Most of the houses in Malta are provided with one 
or more balconies, which, projecting over the streets, 
give a pleasant appearance of irregularity to the 
general outline, and afford both shelter and a view 
of the street to those within. Charcoal is generally 
used as fuel. Houses are usually hired by the month, 
quarter, half year, or year. The rent of a furnished 
house in Valletta is about £12 per month, unfurnished 



55 

houses being obtainable for half this amount. Furniture 
can be hired, and lodgings are fairly plentiful. Beef 
and mutton cost about 8 \d per lb. Fruit and vege- 
tables are abundant and cheap. 

The principal hotels are the t€ Imperial, " 91 
Str. S. Lucia, also another of the same name, and 
belonging to the same proprietor at Sliema. Dunsford's 
Hotel, 254. Str. Reale; Morell's Family Hotel, 156 
Str. Forni; Hotel d' Angleterre, 34 Str. Stretta; 
Great Britain Hotel, 42 Str. Mezzodi, St. George's 
Hotel, 74 Str. Teatro; Australian Hotel, 53 Str. Stret- 
ta; British Hotel, 267 St. S. Ursola; Europe Hotel, 58 
Str. Zaccaria; Duke of Edinburgh, (Landing Place 
Sliema); Rising Sun Hotel, 7 Str. Giardino, Floriana; 
Old Minerva Hotel, 141 Str. Stretta; Crown Hotel, 
69 Str. €tretta; and the Oriental Hotel, 29 Str. 
Stretta. Boats are easily obtainable at the various 
landing places. The usual charge for a boat to 
cross either of the harbours is 3d. Those who cross 
in company with other passengers pay. id. Between 
one hour after sun set and sunrise, and on festival 
days these fares are increased one half. When a 
blue flag is hoisted as a sign of stormy wea- 
ther, double fares are chargeable. The tariff fare 
for a boat by time is 6d for the first hour, and 
3d for each succeeding one. A carriage drawn by 
two horses if hired for less than half an hour Is. 8d., 
for each succeeding quarter of an hour 8d. Any time 
beyond one hour to be paid for at Jialf the above 
rates. For a carriage drawn by two horses, the 
fare for any distance not exceeding one mile is 8c?., and 
for every half mile beyond that distance, 4d. Return 
fares one-half. For a carriage drawn by one horse 
two-thirds, and for a cart or " go-cart " one-half 



5C 

of the above fares. Carriage, coachman, and pair 
of horses £8 per month. One horse carriage or 
saddle-horse £4. A carriage and pair for the day 
about 10 s. Shorter periods in proportion. Settle 
terras before starting. Tariff changes proposed. 

The Post Office is at 197 Strada Mercanti, and 
is open daily from 9 a. m. till 5 p. m. On the 
arrival of mails during the night the office is open 
for a short time. Mails for England via Italy are 
made up on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 
but we are promised five mails p9r week ere long. 
Postage for all countries within the General Postal 
Union 2%d. Mails are also despatched on the 29th 
of each month via Naples. Mails for India are de- 
spatched every Thursday via Brindisi, and letters 
specially addressed " per P. & 0. Steamer" «are for- 
warded every Saturday. Local letters id. per oz., news- 
papers free. Where time is an object, local letters 
should be sent by a messenger. The Mediterranean 
Extension and the Eastern Telegraph Companies have 
offices at 7, Strada Marsamuscetto. The first named 
of these Companies has Branch Offices at the Borsa 
(Strada Federico), and the Marsa, Great Harbour. 
The Branch Offices of the latter are at 95a Strada 
Santa Lucia, and 3 Strada Ghar Illembi, Sliema. 
Charge for a telegram of 20 words to London by 
either Company about 10s. Messages may be sent 
to Gozo by means of the Military Telegraph at 
very moderate rates. 

There are many able and skilful medical men 
resident in Valletta, and Police Physicians are ap- 
pointed in every district. There are also throughout 
Malta numerous Government Dispensaries where the 
poor can obtain medicines gratuitously. The pro- 



-J 



57 

fessional fees of Physicians and Surgeons are regulated 
by a Government Ordinance. The. Chamber of Com- 
merce appointed annually by the mercantile com- 
munity of Malta haa its head quarters at the Borsa 
or Malta Exchange in Strada Reale, as have also 
the Malta Bank and the Anglo-Maltese Bank. Hours 
from 9 0. a. m. till 4. 0. p. m. Messrs. James Bell, 
and Co., 118 Strada San Domenico, and R. Duckworth 
and Co., 14 Strada Ponente, are English Bankers. 
Shipping Suppliers and Bankers; C. Caruana, 31 Str. 
Nuova, Marina, Mortimer and Co., Molo, Marina, and 
Michael and Sons, 7 Marina. 

Weekly P. and 0. steamers, nine days outward 
bound from Southampton arrive about Friday. 
Homeward bound steamers on Monday, but sometimes 
later. S£ay in Malta 6 hours. Fares to Southampton: 
first class £15: second class and servants £9: soldiers, 
sailors and their wives £6. Office, 41 Strada Mercanti. 

The Fraissinet Cies mail steamers (Agent T. 
G. Micallef Esq., 157 Strada Mercanti), arrive from 
Marseilles and Naples every fortnight, and also from 
Alexandria for Naples, Genoa, and Marseilles, twice 
monthly, leaving the same day. Fares to Marseilles: 
first class £ 8., second class £6. Fares to Alexandria: 
first class, £6 : second class £4. 8s. Qd. Fares to 
Naples : first class 80 francs: second class 60 francs. 
To Genoa: first class 170 francs, second class 130 
francs. Messrs. Smith and Co., 12 Strada Cristoforo, 
are Agents for the British India Line of steamers. 
Fares to London: first class £12. 12.^3: second class 
£8. 0. 0: Fares to Bombay and Calcutta: first class 
£40, second class £ 24. Also for the Moss Line 
to Liverpool, first class £12 0. 0: second class 
£10. Fares to Alexandria: first clas3 £5, second class 



58 

£ 2. 10. Also for the Ocean Steamship Co*, Corin- 
thian Shipping Co., Northumberland Steam Shipping 
Co., Wilson's Line, and the Orient Line. Fares by 
these steamers as per Moss Line. 

C. Lowe Esq. 94 Strada Forni, is the Agent 
for the Canard Line to Liverpool, Constantinople, 
Syra, Smyrna, &c. Fares to Liverpool: first class 
£12. Fares to Constantinople £6, to Smyrna £5, to 
Syra £3. 10s. A. Camilleri Esq. 9 Strada Levante, 
is Agent for Ley land's Steamers and the Papayanni 
Line to Liverpool. Fares to Liverpool: first class 
£12. Fares to Alexandria, Constantinople and Smyrna 
£5. Syra £4. Malta has also steam communication 
with Holland, Belgium, North Africa, the Levant, 
Calcutta, and Shanghai. 

Messrs. Addison Duncan <fe Co. 73d. Strfcda Mer- 
canti, are Agents for steamers trading to the Black 
Sea and Levant. O. F. Gollcher Esq. 2 Strada Zao- 
caria, is the Agent for the Anchor Line, Henderson's 
Steamers, for London, Liverpool, and Rangoon, Royal 
Netherlands Steam Navigation Co., the Hall Line 
for Liverpool and Bombay, also steamers for London, 
the Levant, and Black Sea, as well as for Tunis 
(eyery Saturday). 

T. G. Micallef Esq. 57 Strada Mercanti is Agent 
for the Clan Line. Fortnightely from London and 
Liverpool to Bombay. Fares to London: first class 
£12: second class £9. S. Micallef Eynaud Esq. 
114 Strada S. Paolo, is Agent for steamers from 
Liverpool and North Shields to the Mediterranean 
and Black Sea. P. Eynaud and Co. 11 Marina, are 
Agents for the Florio Co's steamers which arrive 
on Monday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning 
the same evening. Fares to Naples: first class £4. 



59 

second class £2. 15: deck passage £1.2. Also for 
the Rubattino Line to Tunis and Tripoli. Fares to 
Tunis: first class 61 francs: second class 41 francs. 
To Tripoli : first class 41 francs, second class 31 
francs. For Tripoli on Wednesdays, and for Tunis on 
Saturdays. R. Ferro & Co. 34 Strada Federico, are 
Agents for steamers between Italy, Antwerp, Egypt, 
the Black Sea, also to London and India. R. Soler 
Esq. 15-16 Marina, is Agent for the Ottoman Steamer 
Trabulus Garb to and from Tripoli. Fares: first class 
40 francs: deck passage 15 francs. Weekly depart- 
ures. Messrs. Walker and Pace, 44 Strada S. Gio- 
vanni are Agents for various lines of steamers, and 
also for the Shipping and Mercantile Gazette. 

The other principal merchants are W. Hearn 
Esq., 21 ft Strada Reale, Messrs. Turnbull Jun. and So- 
merville (Agents for Messrs. Henry S. King & Co.) 20 
Strada Reale, and C. B. Eynaud Esq., 21 Marina, 
Barriera. 

Ships of 3000 tons register can have hull or 
machinery repaired at the Clarence Hydraulic Lift 
Dock at the head of the Quarantine Harbour. 

The following States have either Consuls or 
Vice-Consuls resident in Valletta — United States of 
America, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, France, 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Morocco, the Netherlands, 
Persia, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and Norway, 
Turkey, and Tunis. The Rotolo is the usual standard 
of weight, and is often spoken o£ as if it were 
equivalent to two lbs. English, but it is actually 
28 English or 30 Maltese oz. The Maltese salm is 
the same as the English qr., and the cantar con- 
tains 100 rotolos, 



m** 



1 



60 

CHAPTER II. 

Climate. 

Mild in winter. — Prevailing Winds. — Gregale and Sci- 
rooco. — Sultry in Summer. — Winter attractions for invalids* 

FROM the end of October until May, the climate 
of the Maltese islands is exceedingly pleasant and 
healthy. Bain falls abundantly during the winter 
season, the annual average being about 24. 23. inches, 
but only at intervals, and many bright and sunny days 
are enjoyed even during this season. Hail some* 
times falls, but snow never. Ice may occasionally be 
found, though only in thin layers, on calm winter morn- 
ings, or when a very light breeze is blowing from 
the N. W. It has been seen at Polyerista Gate, 
in the Dockyard Creek, at the Marsa, and at Pieta. 
Throughout the winter an entire day without sun- 
shine or an entire day of rain is equally rare, though 
they do sometimes occur. Rain falls chiefly during 
the night, and, though almost tropical in its violence, 
is speedily absorbed by the highly porous soil. Invalids 
may with due precautions take open-air exercise at 
some time or other on almost every day of the 
year, but no one suffering from debility should 
remain in Malta during the great heats of summer. 
No place can fyoast of a greater equality of temp- 
erature. During the eight cool months the thermo- 
meter at no period of the 24 hours falls below 
51°, except on rare occasions, nor does it rise above: 
71. During the four summer months Q ^)° is the 
highest temperature usually attained, 73° being the 



1 



61 

lowest. The average annual temperature of Malta 
is 67° 3\ The prevailing winds are from the N. W. 
and S. E. The Commander Dolomieu has calculated 
that the former blow on 200 days in the year, and 
the latter during the remaining 165. The Northerly 
winds called by the natives Verdi alti are bracing 
and invigorating, passing as they do over a wide 
expanse of sea, but those from the south called 
Venti Bassi, with their attendant clouds and mists 
are warm and enervating, having first swept over 
the burning sandy plains of Africa. 

Many of the poorer clsases habitually sleep out 
of doors during the summer months without expe- 
riencing any ill effects. The coldest winds are from 
the N. W . Westerly winds generally bring rain. The 
Gregale cr N. B. wind sometimes blows with hurricane 
force. Ships have been sunk in the harbours, the 

?uays torn up, and the lower tier of merlons at 
'ort Saint Angelo, with an estimated weight of 90 
tons each, uprooted and shifted for several yards. 
Fortunately the gregale is not a frequent visitor, 
and is not in the habit of prolonging its stay on 
these shores.. Easterly winds are mild, but the S. E. or 
Scirocco wind is close, damp, and misty. This wind 
is especially prevalent in September but also visits 
Malta at other times. Whilst it is blowing the 
pavement of the streets is quite wet, and every thing 
is covered with a moisture resembling heavy dew. 
Paint applied during the prevalence of a Scirocco 
never thoroughly dries, metals become tarnished, and 
gum loses its adhesive properties. Many feel languid, 
depressed, and in low spirits, but others seem in- 
sensible to its influence. It appears to affect the 
natives quite as much if not more than the English 



62 

residents. Though a "black sciroc" does not deserve 
quite all the hard things that have been said against 
it, its advent is nevertheless by no means welcomed 
by dwellers in the "Fior del Mondo." In Africa 
it is an exceedingly dry and rather strong wind, 
but when it arrives in Malta, having traversed a 
considerable expanse of sea, it has become heavily 
charged with vapour, whilst retaining the heat accumu- 
lated in its passage over the deserts of Africa. 
Iced beverages are very pleasant during a "Sciroc," 
and in the time of the Knights whenever supplies 
of snow from Sicily were small, the contents of the 
icehouses were reserved for the use of the hosp- 
ital. An old author says that a century ago the 
Maltese used to emerge from a bath by degrees 
without making use of a towel in order ^o ward 
off inconveniences resulting from this wind. Windows 
and doors should be kept closed whilst it blows. The 
mean quantity of moisture in the air of the Mediter- 
ranean basin is only equal to one half of that in 
the atmosphere of England. 

The summer days are sultry, but the mornings 
and evenings are deliriously cool. The sun remains 
so long above the horizon, and the countless stone 
walls absorb abundant heat which radiates from them 
so copiously after sundown that the nights are often 
uncomfortably hot and sultry. Both by night and 
day there is frequently a sensation of heat far 
greater than tl^t warranted by the actual indica- 
tion of the thermometer. The Mediterranean cur- 
rents which run not less than three knots an hour 
considerably modify the temperature. It is the de- 
cided opinion of the medical authorities that regi- 
ments and departmental officers ought not to be 



I 

i 



63 

stationed in Malta for a longer period than three 
years at a time. 

The Maltese enjoy good health and often live 
to a great age, the peasantry being especially ro- 
bust and vigorous. The "colpo d'aria" or sudden 
oheeking of perspiration must be guarded against, 
as speedy and fatal illness results from it. During 
the winter months, invalids will do well to visit 
Malta. It is easy of access and the climate is de- 
lightful. The markets are well supplied with both 
luxuries and necessaries, green peas being in season 
from November till May. The houses are spacious 
and airy, and much attention has of late been paid 
to drainage and sanitary measures. Amusements 
abound, and cosmopolitan Valletta the meeting place 
of nations, can offer much during the season to 
divert the tourist or pleasure seeker. To the ar- 
chaeologist, geologist, botanist, or artist, as well as 
to him who voyages in quest of health Malta pre- 
sents many objects of interest, whilst the lover of 
animals will be pleased to learn that hydrophobia 
is said to be an unknown disease in Malta, and 
that horses never suffer from glanders or from grease. 



64 

CHAPTER III. 

The Months in Malta. 

The following valuable observations are kindly contrib- 
uted by Sig. G. Abela Pulis. 

JANUARY. 

THE Japanese medlar, almond, caroubier, Neapol- 
itan medlar, hortensia, elder, and mulberry trees are 
in leaf, also the jessamine and various roses. The 
almond, and lemon trees are in flower, also the 
*\siatic ranunculus with its numerous varieties, and 
hyacinths. The lime (Citrus limetta), swe£t orange 
(0. Aurantinm) , mandarin (0. aur. nobile), and Seville 
(0. Bigaradia) orange, bear fruit. The countryman 
sows cabbages, turnips, cumin, tomatoes, lentils, maize, 
vetches, and anise: plants potatoes, using foreign 
tubers, and onions: weeds beans, corn, garlic, &c, 
reaps green barley for forage, and stores winter 
potatoes. Meanwhile the gardener sows the almond: 
prunes and grafts the vine and gum-producing trees: 
and plants vines, mulberry trees, and strawberries. Of 
spontaneously growing plants there are in flower the 
Anemone coronaria, Erica multiflora, red cornucopia, 
and rosemary, &c. The Channa is plentiful, also mullet 
of exquisite flavour. On January 25th 1865 was cap- 
tured a female Alopus filamentosus, called by Sicilians 
the imperial blackbird. All the species of sea mews 
and gulls are plentiful, with starlings, woodcock, &c. 
and many aquatic birds. The Actinia Fordaica with 
other species of shellfish swarm in all the harbours. 



65 

The proverb says "Dry days in January make plenty 
of fruit !" 

FEBRUARY. 

The nectarine, service, banana, apple, pomegran- 
ate, sweet pepper, sulphur rose, and plane trees 
are in leaf: the apricot, strawberry, pine, and 
laurel are in flower: limes, lemons, peas, and beans yield 
their stores. Meanwhile the peasant sows March 
grain, cumin, and potatoes: weeds corn, late beans, 
potatoes, and cumin. Ground intended for cotton must 
be ploughed ; sulla or clover, and trefoil are cut for 
green forage. The gardener sows gourds, sweet 
pepper, and pumpkins: Adonis aestivalis, Viola odorata, 
Oxalis cemua, Goronilla Emerus, Goronilla stipularis, 
the laurel, African pea or Krempuc, and other species 
are in flower. Birds approach our shores, also several 
species of the Gockrell, which are caught during 
April, and sometimes even as late as June. On 
February 7th 1866 several large band fish were 
captured, and on February 17th 1854. a very fine 
sword fish. Lizards and wood snakes awake from 
their winter sleep. Some woodcock arrive, also the 
robin redbreast, and other birds. The farmers' proverb 
§ays: "February's rain is as* good as a dunghill, 
and fills every garner." 

MARCH. 

9 

This is the month of leaves, sun- strokes, colds, 
and rheumatic fevers. Amongst the trees and plants 
in leaf are the vine, oleander, peach, pinej pear, 
lemon, plum, caroubier and cotton plant: the lime, 

5 



66 

orange, laurel, Japanese medlar, pear, apple, art* 
emisia, plum, and barley are in flower. Lemons, 
peas, and beans are productive. In the country, com- 
mon anise, vetches, March com, beetroot, kidney 
beans, maize, melons, water-melons, cotton, and white 
Indian wheat are sown. Corn, cumin, and anise are 
weeded. Labour in the gardens is directed to the 
sowing of oranges, cucumbers, sweet basil, and sweet 
pepper, to the transplanting of vegetable marrows, 
and the pruning and grafting of olives. The Nigella 
damascene*, various poppies, the Grategm oxyacantha, 
and many other plants are in flower. March is the 
best month for botanical rambles. The districts with 
the greatest variety of species are the Wied Babu 
on the south side of the island, Gneina, on the S. 
W. shore, Puales, near St. PauPs Bay, and the whole 
of Gozo. Pish begin to be plentiful, and the whiting 
is caught until the end of June. Many birds arrive. 
The Catalogue by Mr. C. A. Wright will be found 
very useful by the ornithologist. Silkworms are 
hatched, but the manufacture of silk is no longer 
carried on. " If March be not seasonable June will 
not be festive ! " 

APRIL. 

The month for flowers. Cases of apoplexy are 
not uncommon. The jujube, black mulberry, walnut, 
olive, apple, cherry, prickly pear, and pistacchio trees 
are in leaf. 'Spinach, mushrooms, onions, olives, 
quinces, potatoes, artichokes, pomegranates, and the 
white mulberry are in blossom. Strawberries, Jap- . 
anese medlars, tomatoes, and vetches yield their ' 
increase: the orange tree sheds its leaves, Eural 



67 

occupations in fields and gardens are: sowing cotton, 
white Indian wheat, melons, water-melons, maize, the 
Syrian marsh-mallow, and fennel: thinning cotton, 
and mowing clover for hay. Clover and beans are 
uprooted, and potatoes dag tip. The gardener sows 
pumpkins, cauliflowers, and Cayenne pepper, trans- 
plants pumpkins, and uproots the bulbs of garlic, 
Many flowers bloom, amongst which are the varied- 
ties of the caper. The botanist is still busy. Black- 
birds are caught in large numbers, swordfish appear, 
and various crustaceans are caught. See Dr. Gulia'g 
" Pesci di Malta." Sheep are shorn. Bees prepare 
to swarm. "April brings flowers of which May gets 
the credit." 

MAY. 

The month for mowing. The jujube, olive, cas- 
sia and cotton plant are in leaf: spinach, onions, 
saffron, vines, and wild marjoram, prickly pear, iris, 
and a thousand others are in blossom, whilst bar* 
ley, black vetches, kidney beans, almonds, cabbages, 
apricots, and chick-peas, cherries, cumin, cucumbers, 
tomatoes, gourds, and coriander have reached ma- 
turity. Cotton is sown on clay soils, cumin is gath- 
ered, and barley being mown the threshing-floor 
is got ready. The gardener transplants pumpkins, 
sweet, and Cayenne pepper, sweet basil, and gourds, 
He also prunes his vines, and hoes »his pot-herbs. 
The willow, wild plum, the star of Bethlehem, call- 
ed in Maltese speech "FowFs milk," convolvulus, and 
many others blossom. The learned rock-fish, which 
is caught with the net, is excellent. Gozitans fish 
for the boops: quails, roller birds, starlings, and 



68 

other birds arrive. Migratory locusts are frequent 
but unwelcome visitors. "A careful man is never 
poor!" 

JUNE. 

The month for threshing. The first signs of 
epidemics usually appear during this month. The 
Japanese medlar puts forth branches for the second 
time, and the anise, sweet and wild marjoram, sweet 
plum, jujube, and pomegranate trees are in flower. 
Cherries, corn, beetroot, St. John's figs, black mul- 
berries, water melons, pears, anise, and horse radish 
are, gathered. 

The peasant toiling beneath a burning sun plants 
cauliflowers between his cotton and wat^r-melons, 
weeds and thins his cotton, reaps, and threshes his 
corn. Onions and potatoes are dug up. The gar- 
dener, less exposed to the sun, sows mulberries and 
leeks, caprificates figs, prunes, grafts, and irrigates 
the orange trees. Meanwhile the women pick the 
buds of the caper, which are sold by measure. Thyme, 
thorny endive, myrtle, and Jerusalem sage are notice- 
able plants. During the heat of the day, the grasshop- 
per chirps in the fields; the lesser daw incubates 
at Filfla; glow-worms shine, and the tortoise lays 
its eggs. The cockrell is abundant, as are also several 
varieties of the ray and skate. The tunny fish taken 
off Trapani supplies our markets. When silkworms 
were reared, the cocoons were collected during this 
month. " Sickle in hand in June !" 



69 
JULY. 

The month for heat, sun-strokes, lock-jaw, typhoid 
fevers, &c. 

The orange, elder-tree, laurel, endive, mint, and 
caroubier are in leaf. Maize and cotton flower, and 
the apricot, melon, pear, apple, plum, pumpkin, 
onion, prickly pear, sweet pepper, nectarine, fig and 
vine are. laden with fruit. The almond tree sheds 
its leaves. The peasant is busied in gathering anise, 
pulling up beetroot, in beating the heads of saf- 
fron, threshing corn, or sowing clover. Gardeners sow 
different kinds of cabbage, and gather almonds. Two 
species of Yerbasoum, the Orsinia Camphorata, on 
the forts and seaside cliffs of Gozo, the agnus castus. 
For Maltese Flora see Dr, Gulia's "Repertorio Botani- 
co" and "Repertorio di Storia Naturale." Several spe- 
cies of the genus Sparus are caught by fishermen, also' 
delicious white bait, and the Marroon or Castagnola, 
good for cats and men. A specimen of the Smaris 
insidiaUr was captured, on July 6th I860. Honey 
is collected, and weasels are born. "He who doubles 
his dunghill doubles his field! " 

AUGUST. 

The month of fruit and fevers. The wild and 
sweet marjoram, artichoke, and lemon are in leaf: 
the tuberose blossoms, and the peach, nine, pumpkin, 
pippin, walnut, Cayenne pepper, maize, caroubier 
and cotton yield increase. Figleaves fall, cotton is 
cut, and winter potatoes are planted, with the pro- 
duce of Malta. Farmers begin to manure their land. 
Onions, horse-radish, and peas are sown. On the 



70 

sea shore are in flower the sweet smelling ambrosia, 
the marine critmo, and the medicinal squill. The 
lampuca, one of the best fish of the Mediterranean, 
is caught from August until the end of the year, 
and sometimes till the end of March. Mullet are 
plentiful, and also the boops which is caught in bow- 
nets, and we see shoals of sardines. The old say- 
ing is often true. "S. Antonio (17th Jan.) great 
cold. — S. Lorenzo (Aug. 10th) great heat. — Both 
of short duration ! " 

SEPTEMBER. 

The vintage month. Catarrhal ophthalmia, liver 
complaints, and bilious fevers are prevalent. The 
date palm, onion and laurel are in leaf, dhd the ju- 
jube, walnut, yellow peach, bergamot, lime, lemon, 
sweet basil, and white Indian wheat are fruit bear- 
ing. The black mulberry and sweet plum shed their 
leaves. Fields are ploughed and manured before the 
sowing of vetches, barley, and garlic, the planting 
of winter potatoes, and the transplanting of various 
sorts of cabbage. The peasants are busily engaged 
in picking cotton-pods, and gathering the ears of 
maize. In the gardens tomatoes, endives, turnips, 
horse-radish, lettuce, onions, and artichokes are sown: 
pot-herbs are thinned and grafted, ripe pumpkins 
are cut, and exposed to the sun. Of spontaneous 
plants there fcre in flower the Nepela Oalamintha, 
Timo eapitato, several of the Hypericum tribe, Inula 
viscosa, and the Datura metel, poisonous to birds. 
In the waters are the razor-fish, the pearl-fish, (a 
delicacy), and the basse which pursues its prey es- 
pecially into the Quarantine Harbour. Ladybirds and 



71 

beetles are plentiful in the country, as well as other 
insects, such as the Acherontia atropos, Deilephila 
Imeata, EpHachna ehrysofnelina, and Asida sicula. 
"The September moon draws seven moons/ 1 



OCTOBER. 



i » 



The month for sowing. Colds and rheumatism 
are the order of the day. During this month diph- 
teric affections, such as croup, &c. are common. 
Garlic, squills, saffron, and strawberries are in leaf, 
and the caroubier, fennel, and the Japanese medlar 
bloom. Fruit is yielded by the vine, olive, pome- 

franate, pear, laurel, service tree, quince, and apple, 
he peaon, quince, pear, apple, jujube, apricot, and 
service trees shed their leaves. The fields are ma- 
nured and sown with barley, vetches, peas and beans; 
tomatoes, and various turnips are planted. Spinach 
is sown, and olives, asparagus, and artichokes planted. 
Leeks are uprooted, and pumpkins cut. Fennel and 
the late narcissus are among the few flowers of this 
month. Various kinds of anchovy are caught, and 
Sig. Borg's tonnara at Melleha lays snares for the 
tunny which visit our shores. Shoals of the deli- 
cious white tunny are often caught at the same 
time. The cross spine is caught off the Great Har- 
bour. This is the lambing season, and various birds 
arrive, such as the robin redbreast, # water wagtail, 
bullfinch, greenfinch, chaffinch, Ac., and some aqua* 
tic species. "If you would reap well sow quickly V 9 



12 

NOVEMBER. 

This leaf-falling month is very trying to per- 
sons in the last stage of consumption. The Japan- 
ese medlar is in leaf: the cauliflower, artichoke, and 
saffron bloom. The Japanese medlar bears frnit. 
We remark the shedding of leaves by the vine, po- 
megranate, Cayenne pepper, and elder tree. In the 
fields saffron, barley, and wheat are sown ; onions 
and winter potatoes are planted. Carrots are sown 
and cabbages planted in gardens. Vines and pome- 
granates are pruned and cultivated. A sacred plant 
which formerly wrought many wonders blossoms in 
lonely places. It is collected by herbalists' and sold 
to poor women to be used in baths for ricketty 
children. Sage (clandestina) . and the ranunculus are 
in flower. Several kinds of sharks, amongst which 
are the Small Spotted and the Great Shark are 
caught in large numbers, except the last named, 
which is, fortunately, rare. Prom November until 
the end of February they have savoury flesh, which 
is more or less esteemed. The needle-fish and the 
flying-fish are plentiful in the markets, and are ob- 
tainable until the end of May. "A good manager's 
eye is worth as much as a dunghill ! " 

DECEMBER. 

A rainy *month. ( The sweet orange, mandarin, 
and the other species, and varieties of the genus 
Citrus continue to bear fruit : the cherry, pistac- 
chio, caper, and cotton shed their leaves. Wheat is 
sown, onions and figs planted : and fennel pulled 
up. The gardener sows almonds and beetroot, plants 



73 

the peach, plum, vine, apple, and strawberry: grafts 
the apricot, the plum upon the wild variety, and 
the pear upon the quince: he also prunes his vines. 
The flowers of the daffodil make thq fields gay. 
Mallet are excellent: the Maltese say that red fish 
should be eaten in winter, and azure fish in sum- 
mer. The Streaked Sparus appears from time to 
time. Storks arrive, and the caves of Ghar Da- 
lam and Ohar Hassan are full of hybernating bats. 
We must not forget the bees, which, as flowers 
are scarce, require to be fed. " December sells and 
gives not back!" 



74 

CHAPTER IV. 

Stf\eets and Buildings. 

Porta Beale.— Strada Beale.— Opera House.— Union Club.-— 
Gfcnroh of St. John. — Courts of Justice. — Public Library, — 
Governor's Palace.— St. George's Square. — The Borsa, and 
Fort St. Elmo. — Strada Stretta, the old Duelling-ground. 
Strada Forni — Auberge de France, the Bakery, and the 
Auberge de Baviere. — Strada Zecca, and the Mint. — St. Paul's 
Church, and the Auberge d' Aragon — Marsamuscetto Steps 
and neighbourhood. — Walk round the Bamparts, Ac. 

AS we approach Valletta from the country, and note 
its thickly clustering houses of stone/ we are 
reminded of the ancient prophecy that "every palm 
of Mount Sceberras (on which the city stands) would 
be worth a zecchin of gold" and of the words of 
Lord Beaconsfield: "Malta is certainly a most delight- 
ful station. Its city, Valletta, equals in its noble archi- 
tecture, if it even does not excel, any capital in 
Europe. And although it must be confessed that 
the surrounding region is little better than a rock, 
the vicinity nevertheless, of Barbary, of Italy, and 
of Sicily, presents exhaustless resources to the lovers 
of the highest order of natural beauty. If that 
fair Valletta, with its streets of palaces, its pict- 
uresque forts, <and magnificent church, only crowned 
some green and azure island of the Ionian Sea, 
Corfu for instance, I really think that the ideal of land- 
scape would be realized." 

We cross by a drawbridge the ditch which 
extends from the Great to the Quarantine Harbour, 



75 

950 yards long, 55 feet deep, and 30 wide/ and 
enter by the principal gate called Porta Reale or 
"the Royal Gate/' but which the French used to 
style "the National Gate/' It is adorned with two 
statues, one of which is that of I/Isle Adam the 
heroic defender of Rhodes, and the other that of 
La Yallette the hero of the great siege of 1565, 
and the founder of the city which bears his name. 

Above the gateway which was rebuilt in 1853, 
is an inscription commemorating the commencement 
of tjie city, which was probably formerly attached 
to the foundation stone. Passing the guard-house 
on the left we enter Strada Reale the principal 
street of Valletta, which runs in a straight line, 
though not on the same level for three quartern of 
a mile ft> Fort St. Elmo at the other extremity 
of the city. This street was formerly called Strada 
8. Giorgio, and on Mayday was used as a race- 
course in the days of the Order. Many of the best 
shops are in this Btreet. We pass on the left a 
handsome block of new buildings, on the site of 
the old Ordnance Office, which was formerly used 
by the Knights as their "Ferreria" or foundry. On 
the opposite side of the road is a fountain with 
the words Omnibus Idem, "alike for all/' 

Close by is the noble Opera House with its 
Corinthian portico, one of the greatest architectural 
ornaments of Valletta, which stands on the site of 
the building known as the Auberge d' Inghilterra, 
the former home of the English knights. The 
demolition 'of the old building was commenced on 
February 24th 1861, and the foundation stone of 
the new Opera House was laid on September llth 
1861. It was opened on October 9th 1866 with 



76 

Bellini's Opera of "I Puritani." Mr. 0. Barry was 
the architect On May 25th IS 73 a fire destroyed 
the interior fittings and decorations, but on Oct. 
11th 1877 the Theatre was re-opened with Verdi's 
Opera of "Aida." 

It is nnder the superintendence of a Committee 
appointed by the Government. The Opera season 
commences on October 15th of each year, and closes 
on the following 14th of May. Performances are 
usually given on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednes- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, with the exception 
of certain festivals, days of public mourning, &c. 
The impresario is bound to produce not less than 
18 operas during the season, two of which must 
be entirely new to the Malta stage. Performances 
commence at 8. 30. p. m. Boxes for thd season, 
per month from 6 8. 3d. to £1. Stalls per month 
£1. 11. For the season, per month 12 s. 6 d. For 
one night 2#. Amphitheatre 9d. For further im<< 
formation see Malta Almanacks. 

Strada Reale No. 7 is the Palazzo Azzopardi, 
and on the same side as the Opera House is the 
Church of Sta. Barbara with the inscription "Sanctae 
Barbaras Dicatum." The first church on this site was 
erected in 1573. Having fallen into decay it w*9 
rebuilt in 1740 and solemnly blessed by Mons. Bull 
Grand Prior of the Order on December 1st of that 
year. The principal picture is by the Cavalier Favray, 
Connected withi»the church is the very ancient Confra- 
ternity of the Bombardiers, which has existed for 
three centuries. Many of its members . are buried 
beneath the church, Sta. Barbara being the patro- 
ness of artillery and all things therewith connected. 



77 

A few yards farther down Strada Beale at 
No. 20 are Messrs. Henry S. King and Go's suite 
of oommodious Reading and Writing Rooms, Offi- 
ces, &c. for ladies and gentlemen, which are spe- 
cially intended for the use of passengers to and 
from the East. These Rooms which are under the 
management of Messrs. Turnbull Jun. and Spmer- 
ville are kept open day and night when mail steamers 
are due. Passengers can receive and answer letters, 
see the latest telegrams, as well as English, Indian, 
and Colonial papers &c. free of charge. Instruc- 
tions can be given here as to the forwarding of bag- 
gage and the execution of commissions in Malta, 
or by Messrs. Henry S. King & Go. either in London 
or at any of their Branch Houses. These Rooms 
are a great boon to travellers, who can here 
obtain all information relative to Cook's Tourist 
Arrangements, and also ye smokers! good cigarettes! 
Members of the Indian Go-operative Agency will 
find the Malta Branch at Mr. Archer's, 303-306 
Strada Reale, nearly facing the Opera House. 

Opposite Messrs H. King's Reading Rooms are 
the Franciscan Church and Convent. The first Fran- 
ciscan Convent in Valletta was founded in the year 
1600 mainly through the exertions of Father Daniele 
La Greca a Sicilian priest. On April 5th 1730 the 
work of rebuilding it was commenced, the Grand 
Master Manoel de Vilhena giving £300 and lending 
slaves, convicts, and two carts. A large picture in 
the choir represents this Grand Master superinten- 
ding the erection of a large convent. In 1681 the 
church was rebuilt by the Grand Master Gregorio 
Caraffa, whose portrait is in the sacristy. It is 
simple in architecture and consists of a nave. It 



78 

was beautified in 1862. Therd' are several pictures 
here by Mattia Preti, and that of S. S. Cosmo and 
Damiano is by Paladini. Amongst other confrater* 
nities connected with this church is that of phy- 
sicians and surgeons whose patron saints are S. 6. 
Cosmo and Damiano. The confraternity of artists 
and painters formerly used to assemble here on St, 
Luke's Day. 

Close at hand on the same side of the Street 
is the Auberge de Provence, now occupied by the 
Union Club. This was the head quarters of the 
knights of the Language of Auvergne who had an 
annual revenue of £19,791. 10. 0. and who seem to 
have usually numbered about 60 resident in Malta, 
The head of each Auberge was called a ' Pilier who 
was responsible for the common table (see p.* 30). The 
brethren were evidently sometimes unruly, for " If 
a brother be guilty of any insolence, or indecency 
in the inn where he eats : if he break the doors, 
benches, tables, or .any thing of the like nature or 
fling them away carelessly, he shall be punished by the 
master and the council. Whoever shall strike the 
piliers, pages, servants, or slaves, though he draws no 
blood shall be punished with the quarant&ine, (40 
days fast, confinement to quarters, attendance at 
all chutch services, bread and water on Wednesdays 
and Fridays eaten on the ground, in addition to a 
flogging in a state of nudity by a priest), with 6 
months imprisonment for the second offence. " 
The giving of ill language to a brother in the 
Master's Palace was punished with the loss of three 
years' seniority: if in an inn, of two years' senio- 
rity. "If they draw their sword, or give a box, 
or kick, they shall be expelled without a possibility 



79 

of pardon. The brothers shall not bring any dogs 
with them to devour the bread that might else be 
left for the poor. If any dogs come in they shall 
be drove out, and if their master offers to oppose and 
Complain of it, he shall suffer the same punishment/' 

This Auberge formerly contained many fine pic- 
tures, amongst which was one of La Valletta taking 
possession of Malta by the Cavalier Favray, and 
another of the Grand Master Bohan. The superior 
of the Auberge de Provence was called the Grand 
Commander; who by virtue of his office was per- 
petual president of the common treasury, comptroller 
of the accounts, superintendent of stores, governor 
of the arsenal, and master of the ordnance. He 
had the nomination (subject to the approbation of 
the Grand Master and Council) of all officers from 
the different Languages; and to this he added the 
power of appointing persons to various places of 
trust in the church of St. John, and in the Infirmary; 
The church of Sta. Barbara belonged to the Language 
of Provence which also had a chapel in the Church 
of St. John. 

The Union Club was established in 1826, and 
is to consist of 150 members present in Malta. 
Officers of the Army and Navy, Civil employes of 
the Malta Government, and gentlemen residing in 
Malta are eligible. This Club is under the manage- 
ment of a Committee of nine members, including 
an Honorary Secretary and Treasurer. • Members are 
elected by ballot. Visitors to Malta may be introduced 
for one week by a Member. The ceiling and walls 
of the Ball-room are very handsome, and are very 
good specimens of antique mural decoration. Quarterly 
Subscription £1. Entrance £5. 



80 

Pursuing our way down Strada Reale we speedily 
reach an open square which was planted with trees 
under the administration of Sir Gaspard le Marchant, 
and which was formerly a sanctuary. A criminal, 
however, who once dared to insult the Grand Master 
as he passed was dragged forth and hanged on 
the spot. We note a granite fountain surmounted 
by a lion, and another over which a unicorn presides, 
and have now reached the crowning glory of Valletta. 

The Church of St. John. 

On either side are two large houses. The one 
on the right was formerly the residence of the Grand 
Prior of the Order, and fhe upper portion is now 
occupied by the Gircolo Maltese, one of the Maltese 
clubs. Entrance 8s. 4d. Annual Subscription £\. 
Admission by ballot. The house on tbe left was the 
abode of the Vice Prior, who guarded the treasures 
of* the church, almost all of which were unfortu- 
nately carried off by the French in 1798. The fa- 
cade, which is built in the semblance of both church 
and fortress, as belonging to an Order at once mi- 
litary and religious, has nothing striking in its ap- 
pearance. It is surmounted by a Maltese cross, be- 
neath which is a figure of Our Saviour, the work of 
Algardi of Bologna, which was brought from the 
now demolished church of S. Salvatore on the Ma- 
rina. Abovew is the inscription " Salva nos " (save 
us). The clock constructed by a Maltese called Cle- 
rici, has three faces, which mark respectively the 
hour, the day of the week, and that of the month. 
The two flanking bell-towers contain ten bells, seven 
of which give warning of the church services whilst 



81 

the other three are connected with the clock. Two 
of the largest were given by the Grand Master Pinto, 
and were consecrated by Bishop Alpheran de Bussan. 
The building of the church was commenoed daring the 
rule of the Grand Master De La Cassi&re, who employ? 
ed the architect Girolamo Cassar, who also drew the 
plans for the city of Valletta, and designed the Auber- 
ges of the various Languages. The first stone was laid 
in November 1578, and in 1578 the Church was suf- 
ficiently far advanced for consecration. The see of 
Malta being at that time vacant, Bishop Gargallo 
not being as yet consecrated, Mons. Ludovico di 
Torres Archbishop of Monreale in Sicily came to 
Malta, and consecrated the church on the 20th of 
February* 1578. The coats of arms of the Grand 
. Master Der La Cassi&re, and of Archbishop Torres, 
together with two Latin inscriptions over the en- 
trance record the erection and consecration. 

Let us raise the large mat which hangs at the 
door and enter. It is impossible not to be struck 
with the magnificence which is everywhere display- 
ed. The church is of an oblong form, 187 feet 
in length. The nave is 50 feet in breadth, or in- 
cluding the side chapels 118 feet. The height to 
the centre of the roof is 63 feet 6 in., and the walls 
were inlaid with slabs of green marble between 
1663 and 1680 by the Grand Master Nicholas Co to- 
ner. The corridors date from 1735. As we enter 
we notice two marble fonts, which were presented 
in 1641, and another of plain marble which was 
brought in 1648 from the Church of Vittoria. 

The church consists of a choir and apse, nave, 
and two side aisles, the latter being divided into- 
side chapels, one of which was assigned to easfe 





82 

of the Various Languages of the Order by the first 
Qeneral Chapter held in Malta in the year 1604. 
.. We oannot fail' to notice the pavement which 
is composed of some 400 richly inlaid marble slabs, 
commemorating many famous and illustrious mem- 
bers of the Order. These slabs are adorned with 
many. - quaint and appropriate emblems, and bear 
Suitable epitaphs. Any one who wishes td study 
these monuments should: consult the able work of 
the Maltese artist Caruana, which can be obtained 
at the Libraries and* elsewhere. : 

; , Successive. Griand Masters* and Grand Priors 
vied with one another in. adding <to the treasures 
of the ChutTch of St. Joh^ r individual knights. gave 
doe% • gifts, and every member of the Prder on 
promotion, was; "bound, to give a "gioja" or present 
to the/Church, the amount of whioh was ^recoverable 
by a liea upon his> piropertyl The "gioja" of the 
Grkifli Master was limited to 50 oz. of gold.' The 
carved ornaments of the nave and side chapiels were 
gilded! with; i sequin gold at' the expense of the Grand 
Master Nicholas £!ot6nerj The painting* on the 
roof are worthy of special noticew They are the, 
work of Mattia Preti generally known as "the Ca- 
lahrese" from the place of his birth. He came to 
Malta in 1661 at the invitation of the Grand Mas- 
ter de Eedin, and ■ resided here until his death 
in 1699.. The Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner was 
also one of h*s patrons. During this ,whole period 
he was more or less engaged in adorning and 
beautifying the Conventual Church. He refused 
to receive payment,, whereupon the Order bestowed 
upon him the rank of Commander, and each of. 
the Languages, granted him a pension. He was a.. 



• » 



83 

very pious man, and much of his income glad-*' 
dened the hearts of the poor. He> has > found a 
last resting* place beneath 'the* roof which' he did 
ho much to beautify. His- portrait And a brief bio- 
graphy are , to be seen in the sacristy. Mattia Pfreti 
specially excels in what dti termed by artiste the> 
VSotto iif-su/^ or the power of 1 makings ^uares painted 
era a flat surface appear* to fcfre spectator rbeldw a© 
though standing oat in bbld relietf*. Preti specially 
prepared! the stoned and theh painted bis figured 
upon them* in oils.' *» '*' .. .* »,.' '•* j; 

» The ' roof fe divided intd »elren teohes; :oiie 66 
which at the- wist- end above* <?he ^ailery 'is narrow, 
and fch©' ©tber sir serrated by- progeoiing' bands of 
stone, s^pfcurod: with Jfifrt&erdbs gilded jialffl branches.^ 
Abase! fihe t galley is ^Tk^ Rfeligion^ holding in on* 
harid;<;the standard' off ilhe^Order} and 1A the other 
a dra^n swWrd; O^'i either dide '-are'^the <figirres of 
the Grand Masted* Raphael) at^d ' Nicholas uGotoaaer J 
The small kroh has .onutihfe left the" Agates f6F St. 
Elisabeth; mother • /of ••' ihe'l Bajattefcy and i of fiaymodd 
dn Pu^vtha ^ebbiKl Oi^d^'ttai^e^ iWhiisib^on. th# 
right are- Zaehlarias' and 'S.^GrerWldGK.' the v&uridar* 69 
the Chief/' lltoHkei'tivd Wrgfel zim<y. Wfeee 'Zacha4 
ii&& ^ taiiiiisifelernwgf/ini -the* • iteraplej •' «nd > on U the;.; right 
the 1 naafing -ictf' Sit/.Johtt^Ba^iislb.' nAbov«©is(flepiiciteti> 
the Seating i'i>f itte^B.'^ Jfiary : abd;sStL^Bli!DabedK 
In"thfeaeoo»d/taoile Jbe^Batptifet-ftf pointing 'his 4i# 
ciples* to 'Dltrisfc law <"tft#i luatfib •'<# (iady'fjwhils* rip 
t&e figfofc we* ase «|bhe ' *ntfltitt*flei oozing te his bap* 
tisttw* ©tt'ithexroofi&'idypibtefl Ja»4n|{el jpresdniring 
t&6 ix^rft"ifeaittfe) iKyike^HfeavdfliyrPartJher. v/Theahird 
zopei pouttray<^*^hfc'r Ba^tfettb of iChrifet" and MfSt& 
John-p^H&aohWg'Jn'' tH© Witete*aessi'P i-Aiibvse are^ 



84 

Heavenly Father, angels> and a scroll "Hie est Fw 
lius mens dilectus." 

The fourth zone represents the arrest of St. 
John by Herod. On the right the Baptist makes 
reply to the messengers from Jerusalem, and in the 
centre he gives advice to the soldiers. The fifth 
zone shews how Herod was reproved by St. John, 
on the right the Baptist's followers are being sent 
with a message . to our Lord, and in the centre is 
the daughter of Herodias with the severed head in 
a charger. The sixth zone represents on the left 
the dance of the daughter of Herodias, whilst evil 
spirits whisper to her mother, and on the right the 
executioner does his work. Above is a chorus of 
angels. In the apse St. John carrying the banner 
of the Order kneels before the "Holy and blessed 
Trinity." At the corners of each of these arches 
are twenty four figures of martyrs and heroes, illus- 
trative of the history of the Order. 

The pavement was partially restored under the 
administration of Sir H, F. Bouverie, and the pic* 
tares under that of Sir Charles T. V. Straubenzee, 
G. G. B. by Sig. Cortis between December 21st 
1867 and the year 1874. Taming to the right as 
we enter the church we see before us the Chapel 
of the Decollation of St. John or the Oratory. This 
was erected in 1603 by the Grand Master Alofio 
Wignacourt for the instruction of novices and other 
pious purposes* The Altar is formed of rich marbles, 
and is surmounted by a group representing the 
Crucifixion by Algardi of Bologna. The three lunet- 
tes are by Favray, who has also enriched by hia 
pencil several other churches in Malta. The large 
picture behind the altar is by Michael Angelo de 



85 

Caravaggio. This painter [who' derived his Surnarae 
from a castle iu the Milanese in which he was born 
ki the year 1560, wife the son of a mason, and 
was at first employed to prepare colours for pain- 
ters in fresco. He studied at Venice. where he learn- 
ed to imitate the colouring of Giorgibne, and in 1608 
came to Malta to paint "the roof of this churfch, was 
knighted by the Grand Master Wignacourt, departed, 
and died in the following year* The remaining pictures 
in the Oratory are by Preti. ■ Over, the altar in a 
special monstrance made "by Bernini at the expense 
of the Grand Master! Carafe, was formerly preserved 
the most hfghly prized relic of this church, viz., 
the right hand of St. John the . Baptist. It was 
originally kept at Constantinople! in a chuirch built 
by the Emperor Justinian expressly for its recep- 
tion, after Ms' removal from a' church in Aritioch. 
The : Saltan Bajazet presented' it to ithe Grand Mas* 
ter D x Aubusaon, and when the knights were ex- 
pelled > from Rhodes ' : LM Isle Adam conveyed the 
precious relic to Malta. It was encased in gold; 
and adorhed : with many precious stones. By its 
side . with many other votive offerings was a costly 
diamond ring. This Napoleon appropriated, but re* 
turned ; the >harid itself to the Grand fMaster. Homr 
peach, ; who carried it away; with him 1 to St. Pe- 
tersburg, where it is still carefully .preserved in the 
Winter Palace. In * the Oratory are kept th6 splen- 
did < tapestries . presented td the churclf /by the Grand 
Master Perellos >afc r a oost of £6000; These tapestries, 
which !ai$ well worth Seeing, were executed, in j Brus- 
sels .by th© firm' :of J. D. Yes.' They form part 
of the decorations of the, church #n St/ John's 
Day, from the festival of .Corpus, Chriati tb that. of 



8ft 

8. S. Peter and Petal, and from Christmas Day unii) 
the Epiphany. ... 

The first side chapel in the south aisle is de- 
dicated to St. James, and Was assigned to the. Lan* 
guage of Castile. The bronze monument of the Grand 
Master Manoel de Yilhena is very handsome, and 
recalls to mind the building of Port Manoel on ao 
island f k iab the* Quarantine Harbour.' Grand Master 
Emmanuel Pinto who was/ a great benefactor to fcbe 
church, giving to it amongst other gifts two large 
bells, is also buried Sir. this chapeL. His tomb is 
adorned with a fine portaradt 'in )B»66aio which f waa 
painted by the Cav. • TWray far fi% magisterial 
eecchins (£17. 14. SL) ait the . eipensb of the Ven- 
erable Assembly : in -gratitude for the mace granted 
to tbat-toody by, -Kn^o.'- » ■■ . ' ■ T. •. < ; •* • 

We next visit: the Campo Santo* which Consists 
of a large plain 6 tone I slab with a p^ramrid in the 
centre, in memory of many a valiant soldier The Ghapei 
of St* John was : assigned to ' the ' Language' of Ax* 
agon. Grand Master DeB^uig whose bosi and arms 
a*e seen here gave the* altar. In this chapel are 
preserved the relics of St. Fidele given by Pope 
Clemen tithe Twelfth in i?38 and solemnly trans- 
lated hither' in September 1789:; The Grand Mas* 
ter Martin de Bedin, the two Gotbners, and Perellos 
are buried. heTe. The monuments of PereUos and 
of Nicholas Cotoner who Was n great benefactor to 
the church, ttere exedntedin Bernini's studio at 
Rome, in which the Maltese* seal pior MekJlior Ga& 
was a; pupil. The allegorical figures! of Asia and 
Africa whi$h are<co£ies from the n celebrated bronze 
origiikls of 'Giovanni di Bologna, Support a well 
executed* figwre Jbf JEam'e. - 



87 

The Chapel of St. Sebastian/ assigned tp the 
Language of Auvergne is adorned with numerous 
figures of dolphins, the eniblfem of Auvergne. It 
contains a picture of St. Sebastian by Paladiui and 
the tomb of the Grand Master De Gessan. On the 
South! side of the Choir is the Chapel of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament or' of "Our Lady of Philermos." 
This latter title was given because • this chapel for- 
merly contained an image of .the' B. V. Mary, of 
which many miracles are recorded* This image was 
carried to St. Petersburg by ' the last Grand Mas- 
ter. Monsignbr Alpheran, formerly Bishop of Malta; 
was the donor of the silver tabernacle, and the 
silver Tails valued at £600 were given in 1752 by 
the Bailiff Gni&nt, ' and a knight named De La 
Salle, as«a votive offering of one-fifth of their personal 
property. These, costly rails escaped the notice of 
the aU^phmdering French, , thanks < 46 a coat of 
paint. 

Notice Ihosd ancient keys. 'Thfey art) thoie of 
Patras, Passava, Lepanto, and ^mameta.- This Tasi 
was an African city/ captured by the galleys in 
1603; We now enter the choir which dates from 1598. 

The marble Baptism of Christ was. worked at 
Rome at the expense of the Grand Master Garaffa; 
after the designs of MeJcbior Gafi. This eminent 
sculptor was: born in Malta : in 1635, and atudied 
at Borne under Ferrata. ' He commenced this group, 
but an accident prevented him from completing, it 
krtnself. The sculpture was placed* in position inr 

1714. •."■:•: .'-.. t .: 

The G^aoid Master PefceHos gave ^ the marble 
altar at the extremity of the apse./ The high altar 
of lapis lazuli and other marbka cbst 4,5G0 Roman 



88 

scudi, and was designed in Borne by Bernini in 
1686. A former prior gave the six large silver 
candlesticks, and in 1669 the, large silver lamp was 
the gift of the Bailiff Bospiglion. The Grand Ma- 
ster Garzes gave the pulpit and choir seats in 
1598* Two silver statues brought from Rhodes re- 
presenting Moses with the Tables of the Law, and 
the Angel of the Apocalypse, in the choir were melted 
down in August 1761, for fear of a threatened Turkish 
invasion. The old service books are : very curious. 
The Crypt below the Choir is called, the Chapel of 
the Crucifixion. Here lie twelve Grand Masters amongst 
whom are L' Isle Adam and La Vallette. Here also 
rests Sir Oliver Starkey the faithful secretary of La 
Vallette, who was the last English Turcopolier, and 
one of the three Englishmen who took po?b in the 
famous siege of 1565, and the writer of the epi- 
taph on the tomb of La Vallette. The frescoes are 
by Nasone. 

The Chapel of St Carlo or the Chapel of the 
Belies. Here are preserved in two handsome re- 
liquaries above the altar a thorn which was for- 
merly a portion of the crown worn by Christ, a 
fragment of the cradle of the infant Jesus, one of 
the stones which slew St. Stephen, the foot of Laz- 
arus, and some of the bones of St Thomas of 
Canterbury; The crucifix over the altar is said to 
have been made from the basin used at the wash- 
ing af the disciples feet. . A very ancient wooden 
figure of St. Jwm the Baptist, which is preserved 
in this chapel, was formerly attached to the stern 
of the flagship of the Order. This chapel was as- 
signed to the Anglo-Bavarian Language, established 
in 1784 by the Grand Master de Rohan. 



89 

The Chapel of St. Michael assigned to the Lan- 
guage of Provence, contains the tombs of the Grand- 
Masters Antonio de Paula (died 1636), and John 
de Lascaris (died 1657). The tabernacle contains 
a portion of the wood of the true cross. Above 
the altar is a copy of Guido Reni's celebrated pic- 
ture of St. Michael doing battle with the Dragon. 

The Chapel of St. Paul was assigned to the 
language of France, and contains the monuments 
of the Grand Master Alofio Wignacourt and hid 
brother John, of the Grand Master Emmanuel de 
Rohan, and of the Comte de Beaojolais. This last 
monument is by Pradier, and was erected by Louis 
Philippe, brother to the deceased Count. The Cha- 
pel of St. Catherine, the altar of which is elabo* 
rately ornamented, was assigned to the Language 
of Italy. The Grand Master Caraffa is buried here, 
and the chapel contains relics of St. Catherine and 
the body of St. Euphemia. Notice the picture of 
S. S. Gerolamo and the Magdalen by Caravaggio, 
and the picture of St. Catherine by Mattia Preti, 

The Chapel of the Magi was assigned to the 
Language of Germany. The two lunettes and the 
picture above the altar are by the Maltese Stefano 
Erardi. In the entrance to the Sacristy is the tomb 
of Preti, who so greatly beautified the church. The 
Sacristy contains 15 pictures, and an ancient paint- 
ing of a Christ on wood which is said to have been 
brought from Rhodes. A Mass of reqpiiem is sung 
annually on the 7th of September for those who 
fell in the famous siege of 1565. A a the bells of 
St John's toll mournfully at 10 a. m. the people 
exclaim " It is the Deliverance of the Knights." 



so 

The eleirgy of St* John 1 * ei^joy several special 
privileges. After pluuderiiig it of its treasures, the 
First Napoleon restored the church to Bishop Labirii, 
and it has since borne the title of Co - Cathedral 
The clergy forming the Chapter of the . Diocese 
officiate. The cost to the Local Government of the 
restoration; of this church between the years- 1867 
and 1875 was £5,886.8.5, The niece of the Grand 
Master Bohan was. permitted by $ir Thbrilas Maitland 
to find a grave at the feet of her. uncle. 

Quitting the church and returning to Strada 
Eeale we pass another open; spiEuee planted, with trees, 
and . ornamented with an obelisk of red granite which 
serves as a drinking fountain^ erected during the 
rule of Sir Gaspard Le Mauchanfc. ... 

On the opposite aide of the .street isAh& large, 
massive, and unadorned AuB6rge d' Auvergne. The 
revenue of the Language* of . Auvergne was about 
£7,198, and its emblem was a dolphin. 

The head of this Auberge was called the Gxand 
Marshal He had the military command over the whola 
Order* excepting the Grand Crosses or their lieu- 
tenants, the Chaplains, and. other -persons of the 
Grand Master's household. He entrusted the- stand* 
ard iof the Order to the knight whom he judged 
most, worthy of such distinction. He had t,he ,right 
of appointing the principal equerry; and when at 
sea commanded not only .the general of the galleys 
but even ih% grand admiral himself. 

The upper floor ie occupied. by the Archives, 
milk the Courts of Appeal and the Commercial, Civil! 
and Criminal Courts, in which H. M, Judges preside, 
whilst on the ground floor the Magistrates : of Jn^ 
dicial Police administer justice. There are police 



91 

oells r for persons awaiting .trial, or sentenced to 
ttot more • than three d!ays ; detention, and also a 
small chapel. The Language of Auvergne had a 
chapel in. St.Jbhh's Church. (see ( p. 87), and also another 
within their Auberge. The paintings on the roof 
qi Messrs. Crockford's Drapery Establishment which 
forms part .of. the Aaberge, Were executed some 
years since at a cost of £200.. 

'Adj6iriing tb6 Auberge d' <Auvergne is a large 
boildjng /formerly called! the. Conservatorio. This was 
the' repository: for. the gbW,. plate, and money of 
thet Order, and from' hence pay men ta were made 
wien anthorised by the Treasury, Thia . Conseorva- 
torio was-: under tfhe. control of a knight called the 
Conservator, who was appointed . every three years 
from the* several Languages in turn according to 
seniority; i *• 

Adjoining the Conservatorio waH the Treasury, 
situated in /the 'large Mock of ' bhiktwgs forming 
the left hand side of St George's Square. This 
building was formerly devoted td the , keeping of 
account books and records. It was managed by a 
committee, of which the Grand Commander or some 
knight of the Language of Provence was the pre- 
sident. The' expenses of the Treasury and Can- 
iervatorio amounted to * j£83S per annum. The mag- 
nificent rooms of the latter were a few years since 
oooupded by the Casino Maltese* 

On the opposite side i of the; atreet ia Victoria 
Square formerly called ^the aquare of the knights," 
which was' enclosed by » . Sir \ Gaspard Lfe Marchant, 
The Caf& de la Beinfewith ita pleasant fee*ts beneath 
the trees and ! pfenning fountain: is much frequented. 
In the centre of the square is a statue of the 



92 

Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena, the work of the 
Cav. Savasse, which formerly stood in the centre of 
the square at Fort Manoel, (Part ii. Chap. v<), but 
was removed hither by Sir 'Gaspard Le Marchant* 
Surrounding this Square, opposite to Which is Duns* 
ford's Hotel, are covered arcades lined with shops, 
forming an agreeable promenade on. wet days and 
during the great heats of summer. 

The entrance to the noble Public Library is 
by a staircase on the eastern side of Victoria Square** 
This Library first had a beginning in the year 1650, 
when the room above the Oratory at St. John's 
Church was set apart for its accomodation; The 
books were afterwards transferred to a room over 
the larger sacriaty. The general Chapter of. 1612 
had also ordered that books, instruments, an'd curiosi- 
ties belonging to deceased knights were not to 
be disposed of. : * 

The Cardinal Portacarrero died in August. 1739* 
and on the 26th of that, month was honoured with 
a solemn funeral in St. John's Church at the ex- 
pense of the Treasury and the several Languages* 
In the following year the Bailiff Tencin bought for 
£700 granted by the Treasury, the books of tha 
deceased Cardinal to come to the Order as univer- 
sal heir, on condition that a Public library should 
be provided, together with rooms ; for. a librarian. 
This was agreed to, and the Bailiff Tencin sent for 
French workmen to bind the. volumes, converting at 
the same time the cases in' which the books were 
sent from Rome into) the present bookshelves. He 
then added his own books and those of /his lieuten- 
ant 4,080 in number, making a total of 9,700 vol- 
umes. 



I * * * .4 



93 

Dr. Fra* Gins. Zamniit who died at the age of 
94 oa Nov. 2nd 1740, and was buried in the par- 
ish church of Casal Balzan, bequeathed to the Hos- 
pital 15,000 volumes, many of which were after- 
wards added to the Public Library, which possesses 
portraits of the Bailiff Tencin, of Dr. Bruno, of Dr. 
Zammit, xrf Cardinal Portooarrero by the Cav, Favray, 
and of Sir H. Oakes. Additions were also made 
from the Libraries of the Camerata, St. John's, and 
the Order of St. Antonio. The first librarian ap- 
pointed in 1763 was Canon Agius di Soldanis of 
Gozo, with a salary of £1 per month and lodging. 
The knights' books accumulated, duplicates being al- 
ways sold, so that the library cost only £8. 10s. per 
annum. In 1782, Dr. Gerolamo Bruno left £1000, 
the yearly interest of which was to be devoted to 
the purchase of new books. The Library was after- 
wards established in the present building, which was 
built during the rule of De Rohan, but not used 
until 1812. There were then 30,000 volumes, to 
whieh 20,000 have since been added. This Library 
to which additions are constantly beipg made, and 
which is well supplied with magazines and reviews, 
is. rich in unedited manuscripts. Open on every 
working day from 9. 0. a. m. till 3. 0. p. m. and also 
for two hoars in the evening during the winter 
months. Admission free. Books are lent with the 
sanction of the learned and kindly Librarian C. Vas- 
sallo L. L. D. F. S. A. to whom I return grateful 
thanks for much valuable information, always most 
readily and patiently given. 

Close to the Public Library, is the large, mas- 
sively-built Governor's Palace, about 300 feet square, 
and snrrouaded by four of the principal streets. 



94 

The front; has two entrances from St. Grdorge'b Square, 
of which it forms one side. Each gateway, opens into 
a large courtyard planted with orange and other 
trees and gay with creepers. The other thre6 sides 
of the Palace have each an entrance in : the centre, 
and open and covered balconies almost surround 
three sides of the building. One courtyard was al-. 
lotted to the sedan-chairs of the Grand Oroasds, and. 
in the other were the stables 4>f the Grand Master. 

The right-hand gateway, opened by the .Grand; 
Master Pinto who greatly beautified the Palace, leads, 
into Prince Alfred's Court, so named in honour of 
the first visit to Malta in 1850 of H. B. H. the 
Duke of Edinburgh, who planted here a .thriving 
Norfolk Island Pine about 40. years of agb. .There 
is a fountain in the centre of this courtyard, which: 
is surrounded by the Head Quarters' Office,. nGhief: 
Secretary*s Office, the Government Printing Offioe/ 
Public Record Office, and the Offices of the Controller 
of Charitable Institutions, and the Crown Ad Vodate. 
We may remark in passing that the Grand Master 
Lascaris was .the first to establish a printing-press; 
in the year 1643, over which, tbwevery he exercised 
strict control. This square was i first planted { byS*ri 
Gaspare! lie- Marchant in 1858. The cloak' resembles 
that of Old St. DunstainV Church* in ;F'lefet<> Street 
fifty years ago. Quaint Moorish figuires have been 
striking the hours and quarters with hammers erer 
since June 22nd 1745. ..'. •;.:.''..! ,• 

Beneath the archway leading into the second 
courtyard are two fieldpieces, and a t$blet comme- 
morating the Visit to Malta on Oct.; 30th: 1862, of 
T. R. H. the Prince of Waleis and the>€ro$m* Prince 
and Princess- of Prussia. Thd ajwirtyiyd has borne 



95 

the name of E. R. H. the Prince of Wales since 
his first visit to Malta on Jane 5th 1862, and has 
in it a statue of Neptune by Giovanni of Bologna, 
holding the escutcheon of the Grand Master Alofio 
Wignacourt who defrayed the epst. This statue was 
brought from the fish market in 1853 by Sir Gas- 
pard Le Marchant. 

The Treasury and Land Revenue Office, the latter 
of which was formerly used for Divine Service by 
the English residents in Valletta before the erection 
of the Collegiate Church of St. Paul by the libe- 
rality of the late Dowager Queen Adelaide, are beneath 
the arched portico which surrounds this courtyard. 

The knights intended to build the Grand Mas- 
ter's Palace on the site occupied by the Auberge 
de Castile, but Eustace de Monte nephew to the 
Grand Master of the same name, having erected this 
building in 1572 from the plans of Gerolamo Cae- 
sar, it was purchased from him. The grand marble 
staircase on. the right of the entrance erected in 
1866, "with broad steps of no great height, is a 
copy of the old one up which the Grand Master 
was carried in his chair of state, and which the 
youn^ knights said was specially designed fori the 
benefit of gouty dignitaries. - A staircase on the left 
led to the Grand Master's summer apartments. The 
floors of the corridors are inlaid with escutcheons 
formed of variously coloured marbles. The walls of 
the Council Chamber, and other < parts* of the Palace 
are adorned with fresboes, most of which are by the 
two principal pupils of Giuseppe d' Arpino. There 
are also portraits of various Grand Masters, some of 
which are by the Cav. Favray. That of the Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacourt is by Caravaggkn The 



96 

Grand Master Zondadari enriched the picture gal- 
lery, which was full in days of old. 

There are in the Dining Room portraits of 
Louis XVI. by David presented by himself, and of 
his son the hapless Dauphin. Also portraits of 
Louis XIV., George IV., and Queen Victoria. The 
inlaid marble mosaics on either side of the fireplace in 
this room are very fine. Along the corridors are 
ranged figures of knights and men at arms in 
full armour, bearing on their shields escutcheons in 
chronological order, commencing with that of the 
first Grand Master, and ending with that of the 
present Governor. 

In the Council Chamber are the velvet chairs 
and neat desks of the Council, and the Governors throne 
on which are the gold-embroidered arms of Eng- 
land. Upon the walls are frescoes, but the costly 
tapestried, some 22 in number, each about 15 feet 
square, crowded with colossal figures, representing 
Bcenes in India, Africa, and South America, are the 
chief attraction here. They were purchased in Brussels 
by the Grand Master D'Espuig from the firm of 
J. D. Vos. 

In tke Armoury (253 feet long by 38 broad), are 
the old colours of the Malta Regiment. Carefully 
preserved in glass cases are the original Bull of 
Pope Paschal II., sanctioning the foundation of 
the Order, the deed of gift by which Charles V. 
transferred Mdlta to the Order of St. John, and 
the trumpet which sounded the retreat from Rho- 
des. Also the sword, axe, and surtout of Dragut 
the famotts Algerine Corsair who held high com- 
mand during the famous siege of 1565, and the 
batons of office of the two celebrated Grand Mas- 



97 

tors La Vallette and Alofio Wignacourfc. The suit 
of armour formerly worn by the last named Grand 
Master richly inlaid with gold is also in the Palace. 
None but a -giant could wear armour nearly .seven 
feet in height, aud a helmet weighing 37 lbs. must 
have been an unconfutable head dress. This figure 
is commonly called by the Maltese "John Ball." There 
is a remarkable cannon in the Armoury which is said to 
have been takeu from the Turks during one of their 
attacks upon the city of Rhodes. It is about five 
feet in length, and the bore is three inches in 
diameter. This prpbably unique cannon is made oj; 
tarred | inch rope bound round a copper cylinder 
and covered with cement, the whole being painted 
black. Notice the various ornaments made with wea-i. 
pons which adorn the Armoury. Fourteen thousand^ 
muskets were formerly kept in store, and as late as 
the year 1761 a number of new arquebusses were 
placed in the Armoury, the old ones being worn 
out. 

At the foot of a staircase ..near the Armoury 
is the state carrriage of the last Grand Master, which 
is said to have been used by Buonaparte. Baron 
Azzopardi however expressly states that Buonaparte 
declined to use it, preferring to march into the city 
at the head of his guards. Within the palace is 
the noble hall of S. S. Michaol and George so 
called as being the scene of all investitures and assem- 
blies connected with that Order. This distinguished 
Order, instituted by Letters Patent dated 27th August 
1818, consists of the Sovereign, Grand Master, 35 
Knights Grand Cross, 120 Knights . Commanders, 
and 200 Companions, and is limited to the British 
Colonies. The insignia are, the Star, inscribed with 

7 



98 

the motto "Auspicium Melioris Aevi" and the Collar 
and Badge suspended from ' a watered Saxon bine 
riband with a scarlet stripe. On the highest part 
of the Palace is a small square tower from whence 
signals are made announcing the approach of ships, 
which, by means of the signal stations at Gozo and 
Delimara, are sometimes reported at a distance of 
56 miles to the East, and 20 miles to the West 
of the anchorage. Sheets shewing these signals can 
be tfbtained from the local booksellers. 

An observatory, whereat many important mete- 
orological facts have been recorded, is established 
in this tower. It owes its origin to the Grand Mas- 
ter Rohan, who provided an astronomer, and scien- 
tific instruments to the valne of £5000. During 
the French occupation these valuable instruments 
were concealed in the tower, which is called the 
Torretta, and their hiding place was discovered in 
1816 by Captain Smyth. Sir A. J. Ball converted 
the room in which astronomical observations used 
to be made into a store for signals. The Torretta 
commands a fine view of the city and island. 
Lamartine said that from this point "Valletta resem- 
bles the shell of a tortoise stranded upon a reef, 
and appears as if cut out of a single piece of liv- 
ing rock !" 

In the basement of this tower were carefully 
guarded amongst other treasures the sword and dag- 

fer presented _to the Grand Master La Vallette by 
hilip II. of Spain The golden hilt of the sword 
was set with diamonds, and the sword and dagger 
Were annnally carried in procession before the Grand 
Master on Sept. 8th. The French seized them, and 



99 

Maogill states that before . leaving Malta Napoleon 
had the sword balanced for his own use. 

Visitors who intend to remain some time ip. 
Malta will do well to inscribe their names in a book 
kept at the Palace for that purpose. The side of the 
Palace towards Str. Ifeatro was formerly assigned to 
the Pages of the Grand Master and was called the Pag- 
geria. These young gentlemen of noble birth, were 
16 in number and were received into the Order as 
Knights of Justice at 12 years of age instead of 16, as 
were other candidates. Their position although ivolv- 
ing heavy expenses, was much coveted. Two of them 
attended the Grand Master on all occasions, one acted 
as taster when he dined in public, and during the Car- 
nival they made a bwve show in a splendidly decorated 
oar, drawn by six richly caparisoned mules and preced- 
ed by two trumpeters and a kettle drummer on horse- 
back. 

Two centuries ago the Grand Master Nicholas Co- 
toner ruled in this palace with more than r$gal state. 
He never . addressed a knight except en Maitre, and 
was attended at church by 400 knights, who also rang- 
ed themselves in the ball when he dined in public, 
and did not ityove until he gave them permission. 
Brydone says that in 1770 no Europeaji sovereign, 
with the exception perhaps of the king of Sardi*- 
nia, was as well lodged as the Grand Master. Though 
the Grind Master did not pay. state visits to the digni- 
taries of the Order, he nevertheless always received 
them- in his own palace standing and uncovered. At 
state banquets whenever the Grand Crosses drank 9 
health th$y uncovered, as did also the Grand Master. 
On these occasions it was contrary to etiquette to leave 
the table before the.Grand Master had pledged his guest 



100 

in wine. The summer apartments were gay with hang- 
ings woven in the looms of Damascus, and during the 
month of May flowers and branches of poplar from the 
Boschetto were constantly to be seen in the bal- 
cony overlooking St. George's Square. The exhib- 
ition of the head of the Grand Master Pinto from 
this balcony was to have been the signal for the 
general rising of the slaves in 1 749, and from hence 
permission was given to commence the popular amuse- 
ment of the Coccagna. 

In front of the Palace is St. George's Square, 
which was formerly called in common with the pre- 
sent Victoria Square "the Piazza dei Cavalieri" or 
"the square of the Knight**." No Maltese were allow- 
ed to walk here except such as received a per- 
mit, of which they were expected to fuake but 
moderate use. The French called it the Square of 
Liberty and it was here that the Festival of 
Liberty was held on July 14th 1798, The conspi- 
rators who wished to give up Valletta to theif insur- 
gent countrymen during the siege of 1798 — 1800 
were shot in this square. It was the scene of numerous 
festivities under the Knights of St. John, and it is 
still the heart and centre of the Carnival and of 
various festivals. During the winter months a weekly 
public guard mounting, a monthly trooping the colours, 
and an occasional brigading of regimental bands attract 
crowds of spectators. At the right and left hand 
corners of the square are drinking fountains. Closely 
adjoining the one on the left is the house formerly 
occupied by the family of the Vice-Chancellor Abela 
who first described Malta, (at present the head 
quarters of the Maltese Casino San Giorgio). Entrance 
6s. 3d. Quarterly subscription 9*. '* » jr "h\ 

\ • •• • 



101 

In the centre of the square is the Main-Guard 
with an electric clock. The Latin inscription above 
the entrance is to the effect that. "Tfee love Qf 
the Maltese and the voice of Europe confirm these 
islands to great and invicible Britain." A. D. 1814. 
There are some clevet sketches here done in hours 
of leisure by successive officers, on guard. The Knights' 
Main Guard occupied the same site. To the right 
is the Brigade Office, adjoining which, is thg Gar- 
rison Library. This building was the forme* depository 
of valuable documents and papers, and was under 
the charge of the Vice Chancellor of the Order. . The 
Garrison I/ibrary which contains about. 2Q,Q00 voir 
umes is i well supplied with newspapers aud peri$di T 
cals, and ig much frequented by residents and visitor*. 
Naval ami Military Officers and Civil Servants whose 
yearly salary is not less than £100, are eligible 
as Proprietors. Entrance for Officers 10s., for 
Civil Servants £1. Quarterly subscription 10s. payable 
in advance. Visitors to Malta may be introduced 
for one week. Yearly Members are elected oy ballot. 
Entrance £2. Quarterly Subscription 10s. Visitors to 
Malta pay in advance 5s. per month; 7s. 6d. for 
two of the same family, and . IQs. for any num- 
ber exceding two of the same, family. The Reading 
Rooms are open daily from 9. 0. a. m. till 9. 0. 
p. m. The Library is open daily from 9. 0. a. m. 
until sunset during winter, and until 6. 0. p. m. 
in summer, except on Sundays' and^ certain other 
days when it closes its doors. On Festivals the 
Library is closed at. noon. Visitors to Malta will 
do well to. subscribe to this Library. , 

In the Strada Vescpvo on,th$ left of the square 
is a block §f buildings, with a' handsomely qftrved 



102 

stone facade, one of which is the residence of the 
Ven. Archdeacon Cleugk This is the Hostel da 
Verdelin, and was the old home of the Cavalier de 
Verdelm Commandant of Artillery, whose portrait id 
in the Palace. The next house in the same block, which 
was then an hotel, was the temporary home of Lord 
Byron when in Malta. 

Leaving St. George's Square and pursuing our 
way down Strada Beale, we pass Bisazza's or "the 
ftick man's" (No. 63), whereat a great consump* 
tion of ices and confectionery is continually in pro- 
gress, and the handsome Borsa or Exchange "where 
merchants most do congregate," and whereat the 
arrivals and departures of ships are carefully recorded. 
Sig. Gius. Bonavia was the architect, and it was 
opened on April 11th. Two days afterwards, 800 guests 
assembled at a ball, and the visit of H. R. H. the 
Prince of Wales in June 1862 was another memo* 
rable event in the history of the Borsa, The upper 
floor is oqpupied by the Casino della Borsa. Entrance 
10*. Quarterly subscription 12*. 6d. The rooms contain 
some curious old pictures of Valletta. Admission by 
ballot. Members may introduce visitors for a month 
(see also p. p. 56-7). When King Louis Philippe 
came to Malta to visit the tomb of his brother, 
the Comte de Beaujolak in St. John's Church, he 
lived at the house now occupied by Sig. A. Despott. 
Up this sloping street at an early hour on Easter 
Day a procession headed by the R. C. Priests of 
the Greek Bite carries a life-size figure of Our Lord 
at will speed with shouts of "Viva! Christ is risen !" 
amidst crowds of spectators. On the left are the 
church and nunnery of Santa Caterina. The nunnery 
Originated in an orphanage founded by a Jesuit priest 



103 

ifr 1606 near St. John's Church. The present building 
was commenced in 1 714, but want of funds hindered its 
completion until 1766. The architect was the Cav. 
Carapecchia, and the sisterhood of Sta, Maddalena 
were received here when the French converted their 
nunnery into a hospital. Bishop Labini consecrated 
the church on July 15th 1783. The Bailiff Pereiri 
lived at No. 219. 

An open space is now reached, studded at intervals 
with large round stones, which cover underground gra- 
naries wherein corn may be kept for years without de- 
triment, and 70 of these "Posse" contain nearly 40,000 
qrs. 

An ancient chapel dedicated to Sant' .Elmo or 
Telmo the patron saint of seatnen, stood on this 
site, and a watch was kept for all vessels enter- 
ing or leaving port. In 1488 the Viceroy of Sicily 
gave orders for the construction of a fort in con- 
sequence of a Turkish invasion, which was rebuilt 
and armed in May 1553. It was of no great size, 
somewhat resembling a star in shape, protected by 
a ravelin on the side of the Quarantine Harbour, 
and having a cavalier or elevated work on the sea face. 
The Prior of Capua was the architect, and some of the 
workmen were, Sicilians. The narratives of Porter, 
Townsend, and Seddall tell how in 1565 the heroic 
garrison held out from May 25th until June 23rd, 
and preferred death to surrender. On May 28th 
1687 the engineer Don Carlos de Gsunemberg com- 
menced extensive additions, and a few years after- 
wards the Grand Master Perellos added several bastions 
which have lately been materially strengthened. 
This heavily-armed fort, which is bnilt of "zoncor" 
or hard limestone, has accomodation for more than 



104 

200 men.. A few years since Col Montague R. E. 
discovered a tittle, forgotten chapel just within the 
gate, wherein the garrison assembled to receive the! 
Sacrament on the night before the final assault. The 
date 1649 probably refers to a; restoration. The 
stone carvings are elaborate, and the chapel has been 
partially restored by Colonel Montague. Another chapel 
with the date 1729 is used as a schoolroom. On 
the night of September 9th 1775, a band of priests and 
conspirators against the Grand Master Ximenes obtain- 
ed possession of the fort, by the aid of a corpo- 
ral who admitted them. Their leader was Don Gaetano 
Mannarino, and they disarmed the garrison, impri- 
soning the commandant De Guiron, and hoisting 
the ancient Maltese' standard. The revolt was how- 
ever speedily' put down, some of the conspirators 
being executed, and Don Gaetano Mannarino remained 
in prison for twenty three years until the arrival 
of the Wrinch in 1798. 

Over, a gateway is a large eye carved in stone 
emblematic iof vigilance. General Abercombie who 
fell at Alexandria and Sir A. J. Ball the- first En- 
glish govern6r of Malta are buried in two bastions 
which, bear thefir names. Above the fort is a light- 
house : erected in 1766 and formerly lighted only in 
wibfcer,' with a white liglit visible fifteen miles away, 
the lantern of which commands a fine view, and of 
which the Due de Rivas says 



)> : 



i . r « 



' !'A'dross j: the dark blue wave^ 
Thy; colossal form and diadem 
jy*me$; q^ a . level, wfth the? stars*" 



').» 



In the:. last Jfceafairy a- new kmtera oost £VUS. 



105" 

The approach of ships is notified by signals 
from this fort. The barracks of Lower St. Elmo 
(occnpied by an Infantry Regiment) with a fountain 
formed of four stone shells, were built in the last 
century by the Chevalier Tigne as a treble row of 
casemates to be used either as stores or as a re- 
fuge for women and children in a case of bombard- 
ment. 

Skirting Fort St. Elmo we pass along the French 
Curtain, to the foot of Strada Stretta*'the Narrow 
or straight Street" as it is variously interpreted to 
mean. This street runs the whole length of the 
city, and contains numerous. hotels and lodging houses. 

The Garrison Library, Brigade Office, Courts of 
Justice, and the Commissariat Bakery have entrances 
in this Street which, from its narrowness, is much 
used during the shadeless days of summer. The 
Masonic Hall is at No. 27, The following are the 
Masonic Lodges, &c. in Malta. St. John and St; 
Paul Lodge, No. 349, B. C, Zetland Lodge, No* 
515, B.C., Union Lodge> No. 407, E.G., Keystone 
Mark Lodge, No. 107, E. C., Broadley Mark Lodgd 
No. 248, E. C, Royal Arch Chapter Melita, No. 349 
E. C. Rose Croix Chapter, "Rose of Sharon," Melita 
Preceptory of Knights Templar, and Priory of Knights 
of Malta, Provincial Priory of the Mediterranean, 
District Grand Lodge of Malta, Sanct' Elmo Lodge 
of Royal Ark Mariners, Provincial . Grand Mark 
Lodge of Tunis and Malta. Also jhe Wignacourt 
Conclave of Knights of Rome, and of the Red Cross 
of Constantine, as well as ftne -William Kingston 
R. A. Chapter, and the Melita Council of Royal and 
Select Masters. The Leinster Lodge, No 887, Irish 
Constitution is held in Strada delle due Porte, Senglea. 



106 

A Mark Lodge and Royal Arch Chapter are 
attached to thin Lodge. 

Strada Stretta was the duelling ground of the 
knights, who were strictly forbidden to fight else- 
where, and were obliged to sheath their swords at 
the request of a woman, a priest, or a knight. A 
cross on an adjoining honse marked the scene of a 
fatal fray. One such cross at least is still to be 
seen. 

Strada Forni is the next street which traverses 
the whole length of Valletta. At its upper end is 
the Presbyterian Church, in connection with the 
Free Church of Scotland. This church which can 
accomodate 450 persons was commenced in 1856 and 
completed in 1857. 

The house of the Revd. G. Wisely M! A. is at 
210 Strada Forni, adjoining the church. The ser- 
vices are announced in the local papers. Opposite 
the church is the plain massive and unadorned au- 
berge de France. In 1687 this Anberge contained 
some fine pictures, many of which were blackened 
by age. The best were by the Cav. Favray. The 
Language of France had an annual revenue of £30,951, 
and possessed very great influence in the Order. 
This Auberge was under the control of the Grand 
Hospitalier, who was in charge of the Hospital, ap- 
pointing its Overseer and Prior and also ten writers 
to the council. The District Commissary General 
resides here, and the Military Treasury, the Pay, 
Supply, Transport and Barrack Departments are con- 
centrated beneath its roof. 

Descending a slope we see on the right the 
Commissariat Bakery, which gives the name of "For- 
ni" or "the ovens" to this street. The knights 



107 

usually leased this bakery to a contractor. Fairbairns' 
machinery driven by an engine of 16 ljorse power 
nominal, grinds about 16 qrs. of wheat per diem, 
bat 35 qrs. could, if necessary be ground within 
24 hoars. Mules formerly supplied the motive power. 
The Bakery keeps three of its seven ovens constantly 
at work, using daily about 5250 lbs. of flour, and 
issuing an average of 6,700 lbs. of bread. English 
malt and hops are used in the manufacture of yeast, 
and the rate of production could easily be doubled. 
The Ordnance Store Workshops are in this building. 

Facing us are the Augustinian Church and Con* 
vent. The site was granted in 1572, the architect 
being Gerolamo Cassar, and the Convent was rebuilt 
between 1764 and 1794. The present church con- 
tains a "picture of S. Nicola by Mattia Preti, Free 
schools for 200 boys are connected with this con* 
vent. 

The Bailiff Plata resided at No. 51. No. 94 was 
the Palazzo Delicata, and at the Corner of Strada 
Teatro was the residence of Hotnpesch before his 
election as Grand Master. MorreU's Hotel was the 
home of the Bailiff Bospiglioni, and No. 106 was 
the PalaKzo of the Portuguese Bailiff Cascaxares. 
The children of Israel were formerly obliged to re- 
side at the lower end of Strada Forni, in close 
proximity to a powder mill, which cost £796 
to build. From the Jews Sally Port, boats cross to 
Fort Tign6 and Sliema. , 

On the right is the Auberge de Baviere, a 
handsome building overlooking the Quarantine Har- 
bour and occupied by the officers of the infantry 
regiment quartered at Lower St. Elmo. The Anglo 
Bavanau Language established in 1 784 a$ a cost of 



108 

£1,408, was united to the Priory of Poland and 
had an annual income of £877. Some curiously 
painted ceilings still exist. 

The undulating Strada Zecca, (named from the 
Mint, which formerly belonged to the Language of 
France, and which was established at the present 
No. 3,) runs parallel to Strada Forni. 1/ Isle Adam 
before coming to Malta claimed the right to coin; 
money. Nearly every Grand Master struck medals 
and eighteen at least of the Grand Master Pinto 
are in existence. The copper coinage of the Order 
was withdrawn from circulation .on Novr. 20th 1827. 
For full particulars respecting the Mint see Furse's 
Medagliere Gerosolimitano. The official residence of 
the Officer in charge of the Ordnance Store De T 
partment is in this, street. • 

The Ordnance. Store office, is in Strada Scoz- 
zese or " Scotch Street." Descending some steps, 
crossing Strada San Marco, • and : traversing Strada 
San Pafcrizio we reach the steep Strada Ponente or 
"West Street." No. 14 was the Palazzo Britto. It 
contains some old pictures, the bust and arms of 
the Grand Master Pinto, some interesting mural de- 
corations, and frescoes of Belem Castle and " Black 
Horse Square" at Lisbon. 

The Auberge of Germany stood close by, but 
was pulled down about forty years ago to make 
room for the English Church. The Language of 
Germany had an annual income of £4,095. Its chief 
was the Grand Bailiff who had jurisdiction . over the 
fortifications of Citta Veochia and of Gozo. The 
Auberge of. Germany was a plain massive buildings 
with a central corridor from which. rooms opened on 
either side. 



109 

The Anglican Church of St. Paul (see p. 57) is 
styled Collegiate, objections having been raised to 
the title of "Cathedral." 

Its architecture is Grecian, and its detached 
tower and lofty spire are visible from afar. The 
church has 750 sittings, a fine peal of bells, a good 
organ, stalls for clergy, and a Bishop's throne. Be- 
neath the spire is a valuable theological library for 
the use of the clergy. The Revd. E. A. Hardy resides 
at No. 32 Strada M&rsamuscetto, and*the clerk (R. 
Beck) lives close to the church. For church services 
see local papers. Church expenses are met by means 
of offertories. 

On the opposite side of the square, which is 
called Piazza Gelsi from three old mulberry trees 
long sidce uprooted, stands the Auberge d' Aragon, 
the former residence of the Bishop of Gibraltar, but 
at present occupied by the General Commanding the 
Infantry Brigade. The head of the Language of 
Aragon, which had a yearly income of £11,505, was 
the Grand Conservator, who was in charge of the 
Conservatory, and of clothing, and who purchased 
all necessaries for the troops and hospitals. The Priory 
of Aragon was the present Nob. 32. & 33. Strada 
Marsamuecetto. 

In Strada Ponente is the church of Our Lady 
of Pilar the principal picture in which is said to 
be by Erardi. It was built in 1670 by the Language 
of Castile and Portugal to which i^ belonged, beau- 
tified in 1718 by the Grand Master Perellos, and 
restored in 1864. The Commander Felice Innignes 
d* Ayerbe, who was buried here in 1691, and Ray- 
mondo de Soler, Bailiff of Majorca, were great be- 
nefactors. 



110 

We tarn to the left at the bottom of Strada 
Ponente, and skirt the San Sebastian Bastion, and 
the German Curtain, opposite to which is the Tele- 
graph Office (p. 56.). On our left are numerous stables 
and storehouses, and high above us rises the grace* 
ful spire of the English Church. 

Half a battery of artillery is stationed at the 
Marsamuscetto Barracks, close to which are the Mar* 
samuscetto steps, at which P. & 0. passengers land, 
and from whence boats ply to Sliema, Pieta, Forts 
Tigne aud Manoel. Half way down these steps is 
the Marsamuscetto Grate, with its drawbridge, electric 
clock, and escutcheon with the date 1508. A tariff 
of boat fares is exhibited at the landing. 

The road to the right leads to the Jews' Sally 
Port. The rocks hereabouts swarm with bathers on 
summer evenings, and boat? and canoes, can be hired, 
at moderate prices from Potts and others. The old 
Quarantine buildings cm the left are now Public 
Baths (id. per hour), and the Royal .Laboratory. (light- 
ed cigars and red-hot pokers objected to, gunpowder 
being plentiful) 

A steep path beneath the lofty r&niparts lead* 
past the San Rocco Baths (4d per hour), and the 
San Rocco Chapel, (formerly assigned for the benefit 
of persons in quarantine) to tha Hay W.harf, so named 
during the Crimean War, at wbi$h QQru was landed 
in the days of quarantine. Thje conspirators whp 
wished to seize Valletta during the siege of 1793 
1800 were captured amongst these -roeka. . In yonder 
red painted boats the'Royal Engineer* goqduet expe* 
jriments - in submarine mining. 

Returning to the top of the Marsamuscetto Steps, 
we see before us the bustling Strada San Marco, 



Ill 

which leads into strada Form and the heart of Valletta. 

On the left is the entrance to the Manderaggio, 
This name means "a plage for cattle/ 9 

A number of the poor and needy here herd toge- 
ther in underground chambers originally intended 
for an arsenal. It is in contemplation to erect good 
houses in the suburbs for the denizens of the Man- 
deraggio. On the right are the stables of the fine 
Government mules which are shipped from Spain 
to Malta and Cyprus, at a cost of about £ 25 each. 

Climbing a street of stairs we reach the Bar- 
rack Department Stores with the date 1807 upon 
them, but which are evidently far more ancient. On 
St. Andrew's Bastion is the base of a column 70 
feet in height, which was erected by Maltese sub- 
scribers, «in memory, of the Hon F. C. Ponsonby, 
who was Governor of Malta from 1827 to 1886. This 
eolumn was greatly damaged by lightning in Jan- 
nary 1864, and was taken down in consequence. On 
the Spencer Bastion is the tomb of the Hon. Sir 
Robert Cavendish Spencer, C. B. who died on board 
and in command of H. M. S. Madagascar at Alex- 
andria on November 4th, 1836. 

These Bastions command fine views over the 
open sea, the Quarantine Harbour, and the interior 
of the island. Strada Molini a Yento which skirts 
the ramparts, bordered by a triple row of trees, 
derives its name from two wind mills on St. Mi* 
chael's Bastion, one of which is in ruins. In a gar- 
den upon St. John's Bastion close 1 to St. John's 
Cavalier, sleeps the Marquis of Hastings, who was 
Governor from 1824 to 1826, and whose tomb for 
six . months after his funeral was covered with choice 
flowers and garlands by the unseen hands of the 



112 

peasants, bringing their farm produce to market ere 
the dawn. 

St. John's Communiqation gives access to Flo- 
riana by means of a drawbridge, and the two neigh- 
bouring Oavaliers or elevated works styled respec- 
tively St. John and St. James, the former of which 
is at present used as a store, whilst the latter can 
accommodate 130 men, were amongst the .first for- 
tifications constructed in Valletta, and were respect- 
ively assigned to the Languages of Provence and 
France. Col. Porter quotes the words of General 
Marmont. "The Maltese were furious. We had at 
first much uneasiness as to the carrying into effect 
of the capitulation. These peasant soldiers were in 
possession of two inner works, very lofty cavaliers 
closed at the gorge, armed, and commaitding the 
whole town, called St. John and St. James. They 
refused to surrender them, even after we had en- 
tered, the gates and penetrated within the enceinte. 
It was by the merest chance that they did not 
continue their resistance; . and, if they had, it is 
impossible to say what effect this one obstacle would 
have had in the position in which we then were." 
These Cavaliers, were used as prisons, and were af- 
terwards occupied by the Malta Fencibles. 

We reach the Guard-house above Porta Reale, 
and must now briefly glance at a few objects of 
interest in the streets which cross Strada Reale at 
right angles. 

Turning to the left opposite the Opera House 
into Strada Mezzodl* or " South Street " we pass 
on the left some Ordnance Stores, and en the right the 
Scotch Church and the Anberge de France (see p. 106) 
No. 12 is the official residence of the Colonel of 



113 

Artillery on the Staff, and Admiralty House, the 
official residence of the Naval Commander in Chief, 
was the home of the Bailiff Don Raymondo Gon- 
salvi. Buonaparte gave this house to Bishop La- 
bini, to be used as a seminary. 

In a narrow street parallel to Strada Mezzodi 
called Strada Gavaliere or the "Street of the knights" 
is the United Service Institute which provides shel- 
ter, welcome amusement and religious instruction 
for soldiers, sailors and marines. It is managed by 
a Committee and is doing good work in the garri- 
son. Visitors to Malta should see for themselves 
what is being done, and contributions towards the 
funds will be gladly received by the Secretary. 

Strada Britarmica, the next cross street was 
formerly "called the "Street of the Grand Falconer" 
who commanded the 300 faloonieri, and who pro- 
vided the falcons annually presented to the kings 
of France, Spain, and Portugal, and to the Viceroy 
of Sicily, at a cost of £103. This dignitary resided 
at No. # 74, the present official residence of the Com- 
manding Royal Engineer. There are still some pic- 
tures of Grand Musters and ecclesiastics in the house. 

In Strada Teatro is the Teatro Manoe! built by 
the Grand Master Manoel de ViJhena " for the ho- 
nest recreation of the people." The building on the 
plan of the theatre at Palermo, was- commenced on 
March 20th 1731, and completed during the follow- 
ing year, "Merope" by Maffei was tbfc nrst perform- 
ance. During the two years' siege, the French kept 
open this theatre to the last. It was restored by 
order of Gen. Sir H. Oakes, and re-opened on Au- 
gust 8th with the musical drama of Elita. The 
actors had houses adjoining the theatre which is 

8 



114 

said to be the oldest in Europe and can accomo- 
date 770 persons. Vernacular performances, chiefly 
on Sundays. This theatre, in which operas were per- 
formed before the erection of the Opera House, is 
sometimes hired by the Amateurs of the Fleet and 
Garrison. 

Just below the theatre are the Carmelite church 
and convent, founded by public subscription in 1573. . 
Gerolamo Cassar was the architect of the church 
which contains pictures by Mattia Preti, Raymondo 
di Domenici, &c. The two Oratories of San Giu- 
seppe aud of our Lady of Carmel are connected 
with the church. 

In Strada Vescovo or t€ Bishop's Street " are 
the Hotel de Verdelin, and the Palace of the Arch- 
bishop of Rhodes and Bishop of Malta, commenced 
in 1622 by Bishop Baldassare Cagliares. The Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacourt raised objections, saying 
that no one except the Grand Master ought to have 
jurisdiction in Valletta, On appeal to Rome it was 
decided that the palace should be completed, the 
Bishop's Prison still remaining in Vittorios*a. Bi- 
shop Cagliares left this palace to the Cathedral by 
will. The architect was the Maltese Tommaso Din- 
gli. It has been the official residence of sixteen 
successive Bishops of Malta and is at present occu- 
pied by the Most Revd. Count D. Carmelo Scicluna 
D. D. who was consecrated in St. John's Church by 
the Archbishop of Reggio on April 11th 1875. 

No. 138 Strada Cristoforo, now occupied by Mr. 
H. B, Bennett as a first class lodging house, is the 
Palazzo Co toner. The Grand Master Nicholas Co- 
toner lived here before his elevation to supreme power. 
A subterranean "mina" or tunnel connects this Pa- 



115 

lazzo with that of the Governor, and there is a ca- 
rious communication in the wall between the upper 
and lower rooms. A marble bust of the great Ni- 
cholas is still to be seen in his old home. No. 58 
is the Palazzo Ximenes, the former residence of the 
Grand Master of that name, previous to his elec- 
tion. Having explored Western Valletta, let us re- 
turn to Porta Reale, and start over again. 



116 

CHAPTER V. 

Streets and Buildings 

(Continue dj. 

St. James' Cavalier and the Auberge de Castile.— 
Upper Baracca, Church and Garden. — View from Upper Ba- 
racca. — Churches of Vittoria and Santa Caterina d' Italia. — 
Auberge d' Itolia, Palazzo Parisio, and Church of San Gia- 
oomo. The Castellania, and Post Office. — Monte di Pieta* 
and Market. — Church of Our Lady of Damascus. — Jesuits' 
Church, University, and Lyceum. The Dominican, and Anime 
Purganti Churches. — Military Hospital and the Camerata.— 
Cemetery, Nibbia Church, Hospital for Incurables, and Or- 
phan Asylum. — Strada San Paolo and the Church of St* Paul 
Shipwrecked. — Churches of the Minori Ossexvanti, San Kocoo, 
and Santa Ursola. — Old Slave Prison and the Lower Baracca. 
— Strada Levante, and the Santa Barbara Bastion.— The Sul- 
tan's Garden, Nix Mangiare Stairs, Barriera, and Church of 
Santa Maria di Liesse.— The Mina Lascaris, Custom House. 
and Marina. 



o 



N the ramparts to the right of Porta Beale is 
the Military Gymnasium erected in 1878, facing 
which is St. James 1 Cavalier, which was formerly called 
the Cavalier of Italy. The ancient Maltese standard 
was hoisted apon it by the insurgents in 1775, 
but, 50 carabineers having been posted on the roof 
of the adjacent Auberge de Castile, this important 
post was easily stormed by 100 knights, 120 French 
merchant seamen, and numerous volunteers. Their 
leader an Italian knight named Corio, was killed, 



m 

but a few days afterwards, the heads of three of 
the defenders were exhibited on the roof. 

St. James communication here connects Valletta 
with Floriana, and facing as is the Auberge de 
Castile, on a site which was originally set apart 
for the palace of the Grand Master. This is the 
finest of all the Auberges. The architect was Ge* 
rolamo Cassar, The Language of Castile and Por- 
tugal was one of the most powerful, and possessed 
an annual income of £15,639. Rivalry between the 
French and Spanish Languages ran high. The Grand 
Chancellor who ruled this Auberge always presented 
the Vice-chancellor to the Council, and was obliged 
to sign and witness the stamping of bulls with 
the great seal. "Those who filled this office were 
required # to know how to read and write." This 
Auberge is occupied by the officers R. A. and R. E. 
The Senior Chaplain has also quarters here. 

Over the en trance is a trophy of warlike weap- 
ons carved in marble* surmounted by a bust of the 
Portuguese Grand Master Pin to, who ruled for 32 
years and died at the age of 92, greatly to the 
disgust of those who would fain have filled his 
place. The Grand staircase is much admired; and 
the corridors are delightfully cool when summer days 
are long. The rooms are lofty and spacious, and 
could formerly boast of beautifully painted ceilings 
which have been destroyed, the cost of restoration 
being too great. The left hand corner of the build- 
ing bears the mark of a shot fired from Corradino 
during .th$ siege of 1798-1800. Between the Au- 
berge apd St. Peter's Curtain are 15 Fosse con- 
taining 6,705 qrs. of corn, and near at hand is the 
Baracoa Scbool^Chapel, which is used as a Garrison 



118 

Church. It can accomodate 500 persons, and efforts 
are being made to make it a more filling soldiers 
church than it is at present. 

Passing under an archway, we enter the plea- 
sant garden of the upper Baracca, maintained by 
the Economico- Agrarian Society, which holds an an- 
nual flower show here. No smoking please, when 
the red flag is hoisted. There is powder not far 
off! 

The tomb of Sir Thomas Maitland, who when 
Governor of Malta from 1813 to 1824, was gene- 
rally known as " King Tom, " is in the centre of 
the garden. Several other monuments are not far 
off, and a French author says that the " English 
have made the proud battlements of Valletta sepul- 
chral ! " 

This Baracca was called the Porta d* Italia, be- 
ing included in the station of that Language. Two 
half-obliterated inscriptions tell how Fra Balbiani 
Prior of Messina, roofed and greatly improved it 
at his own expense in 1661. The conspirators of 
1775 assembled here, whereupon the Grand Master 
ordered the removal of the roof. The old pictures 
of Valletta at the Borsa represent the two Baraccas 
as roofed in 1715, the Due de Venddme, Grand 
Prior of France gave a great banquet at this Ba- 
racca to the knights who had assembled in force 
to repel a threatened Turkish invasion. 

From th% projecting gallery we look over the 
open sea. On the left is the entrance of the Great 
harbour overlooking which is the Lower Baracca, 
also the busy Marina, and the countless roofs of 
Valletta, above which rises the Torretta of the Palace,* 
gay with signal flags; Immediately below us are 



119 

the garden called "the Sultan's," Fort Lascaris, in 
which the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery are quar- 
tered, the dome of the little church of Santa Maria 
di Liesse, the semicircular fish-market, and the Cus- 
tom-house. A few feet below us is the Saluting 
Battery, the name of which explains itself. 

Looking across to the other side of the har- 
bour we note Fort Ricasoli, which, with Fort Sanfc 
Elmo protects the entrance. In the distance is Fort 
San Bocco on a hill-top. Rinella Creek almost washes 
the walls of Fort Ricasoli, and on the promontory 
of Bighi stands boldly out the Royal Naval Hos- 
pital, below which is Calcara Creek. 

Fort St. Angelo, — which, in some shape or other, 
has existed for a thousand years — gives challenge 
to all hostile intruders, and sheltered beneath its 
protection are the houses of Vittoriosa, with the 
Naval Victualling Yard and Bakery. The Dockyard 
Creek runs far inland, and at its extremity are the 
suburb of Burmola and H. M. Dockyard. This Creek 
was formerly called the Port of the Galleys. The 
town of Senglea terminating in Isola Point separates 
the Dockyard Creek from the French Creek or Man 
of War" Harbour, beyond which are the heights of 
Corradino on which we note an obelisk in memory 
of Captain Spencer, of H. M. S. Madagascar, and the 
Military and Civil Prisons. In the far distance are 
the massive fortifications of Cotonera and the Coto- 
nera Military Hospital stands out against the sky-line. 

Now let us walk to the other end of the Ba- 
racca and look down into the yawning gulf below! 
The Turkish captives who excavated that moat must 
have heartlily loathed their task! Beneath this arch 
was once a "huge and enormous" bronze gun. It 



120 

only weighed 20812 Italian lbs after all ! The upper 
portion of the harbour is crowded with sailing-craft, 
and great additions have of late years been made 
to its area. The pleasant, regularly built suburb of 
Floriana with its fortifications is just in front of us, 
whilst upon a distant hill are the domes and towers 
of Citta Vecchia, the ancient capital whereat St. Paul 
probably sojourned for three months. The tower of 
Verdala Palace is visible on the horizon, and several 
populous villages are in sight. But we must proceed. 

Leaving the Baracca, and re- parsing the Auberge 
de Castile we reach the head of Strada Mercanti, 
where we must halt for awhile. On our left is the 
Church of the Nativity of the B. V. M. commonly 
called Delia Vittoria. 

The foundation stone of Valletta wait laid on 
this site (Malta and Its Knights p. p. 152-156) on 
March 28th, 1566 amidst great public rejoicings. La 
Valletta erected a chapel here dedicated to Our Lady 
of. Victory, which was used by the workmen and 
others during the building of the city, and wherein 
his remains rested from August 22nd 1568 until 
their removal in the following year to St. John's 
Church. In 1617 the Ord^r made this church par- 
ochial, and it was restored and enlarged in 1752. 
The paintings on the roof are by th& Maltese artist 
Enrico Arnaux, and the picture of the Good Shepherd 
is by A. Falzon. The Venetian admiral Ems who 
died in Malta on March 1st. 1792 is buried in this 
church at which the annual blessing of the animals 
takes place on January 1 7th and wherein the Malta 
Fencibles, Artillery, and Roman Catholics sailors have 
attended mass since 1837. 



121 

On the facade is a bronze bust of Pope Innocent 
XII. who settled certain differences between Bishop 
Palmieri, and the Prior of the Church. The 6. M» 
Perelloa was the donor. 

Facing this church is another, Santa Gaterina 
d' Italia, which was erected by the Language of 
Italy in 1576> from the designs of Gerolamo Cas- 
sar, and was attached to the adjacent Auberge d'ltalia. 
The principal picture, representing the martyrdom 
of St. Catherine, is by Mattia Preti, who intended 
it for the church of Zurrico. It was however so 
much admired that the Italian knights retained it for 
their own church. The picture of Our Lady of Sorrows 
is the only work in Malta of the Bolognese artist 
Benedetto Luti. 

Large numbers of children attend this church 
for religious instruction. Adjoining the church is 
the plain massive Auberge d' Italia. Over the en- 
trance is a bronze bust of the 6. M. Gregory Caraffa, 
with an inscription recording his two victories over 
the Turks at the Dardanelles, and a marble trophy 
of warlike weapons carved from one of the columns of 
the ruined temple of Proserpine on the heights of Em* 
tarfa, near Citta Yecchia. The head of the Language of 
Italy, which had an annual revenue of £23,533, was the 
Admiral of the Order, who also held military com- 
mand, when the Grand Marshal was absent. Within 
the entrance gateway are two memorial tablets. An- 
other tablet, affixed to the walls of a room gives 
an account in spirited Latin of the great victory 
over the Turks at the Dardanelles on June 26th 
1656. Another inscription is "the accustomed place 
of the Congregation of the Galleys," or, in other 
words, the Admiralty of the Order. A handsome 



122 

arch above a well stands in the garden in the centre 
of the building. Each Auberge had its garden. In 
the Auberge. which is occupied by the Royal Engi- 
neers, are preserved the archives of deceased notaries 
public. 

Saliba's Livery Stables are opposite. Horses 
and carriages on hire. Four omnibusses daily, to 
Citta Vecchia. Fare 6d. Omnibusses daily at 7. 0. 
a. m. for Marfa and Gozo. Fare to Migiarro in 
Gozo, including ferry boat 2s. To St. Paul's Bay Is. 

This building, the old Palazzo Parisio, was of- 
fered by its owner, the Baron Paolo Parisio, a 
Maltese nobleman, to the First Napoleon, who made 
it his head- quarters. Here he treated the Grand 
Master Hompesch with cool contempt, and here as- 
sembled Bishop Labini and his clergy. Let Sigr. 
Ferris speak: u Buonaparte, turning to the ecclesia- 
stical assembly, said in a loud voice, " Reverend 
sirs, preach the Gospel, respect, and cause to be 
respected, the constituted authorities, recommend to 
the people submsssion and obedience to the French 
laws. If you are good priests, I will protect you, 
but, if you are bad ones, I will chastise you ! ' " 
Summary certainly ! 

The church of San Giacomo or St. James is 
nearly opposite. Erected in 1612 at the expense 
of the Grand Chancellor Pietro Gonzales de Men- 
doza who enriched it with carvings, it belonged to 
the Language of Castile. The architect was a Malt 
tese named Barbara. The church contains a picture 
of St. James by Paladini, and another of Our Lady 
of Sorrows, which has a curious history. The lat- 
ter was presented by a Conventual Chaplain in 1646. 



123 

This church is the Oratory of the Institution of 
Catholic Education. 

A handsome facade, with an inscription and 
marble statues of Justice and Truth, points out the 
old Castellania or prison which was rebuilt and en- 
larged, beautified by the Grand Master Pinto. The 
work was commenced in 1757, under the direction 
of the Civil Architect Francesco Zerafa, who how- 
ever, died on April 21st 1758, and was succeeded 
by Giuseppe Bonnici, who completed the building 
in 1760. The Chapel was blessed by the Vice- prior 
Mods. Cons tans on Nov. 15th of that year. Three 
days afterwards the prisoners were brought from 
" the tower of Porta Reale," and the Courts sat 
at 9. 0. a. m. The carvings on the facade and in 
the chapel are the work of Maestro Gian, a Sicilian 
imprisoned for homicide. 

The President of the Castellania was a knight 
selected by the Grand Master every two years from 
the several Languages according to seniority, and 
styled the "Castellano." He was constantly followed 
by a page bearing a wand. The Castellania is now 
occupied by private families and the Gas Office 
At the top of the descent of Strada San Giovanni 
is a pillar on which those condemned to the punish- 
ment of the " strappado " used to stand. During 
the Carnival* a plank was placed across the street 
to shew that judicial punishment were in abeyance. 
This slope is called "the prisoners'. Hill" because 
those in durance used to ask alms from passers by. 
From the door of the present Gas Office came forth 
criminals condemned to death, and those sentenced 
to be flogged through the streets mounted upon 



124 

an ass. Lord Cochrane escaped from the balcony 
over-head, by the aid of a rope ladder. 

We pass St. John's Church (p. 60). The office 
of the P. and O. Co. with its electric clock, is at 
No. 41. On Sundays and festivals an open-air market 
is held in the Strada Mercanti, for the sale of odds 
and ends and "unconsidered trifles." The Post Office 
is at No. 107 (p. 56). Many efforts have been made 
to rebuild or remove it to a more convenient po- 
sition. The building was erected in 1640, at the 
suggestion of the Commander Abela as a place of 
security for the Archives of deceased notaries pu- 
blic, and as the Banco dei Giurati or town Hall. 
The Giurati or Magistrates (see Ciantar's Malta Illn- 
strata. Vol I. p. p. 66-7) sat here daily to regulate 
the price of provisions, and until 1818 the Grain 
Department was also under the same roof. The G. 
M. Zondadari made great improvements in 1721, 
and in 1 798 Buonaparte had a bad fall on the stairs. 
An adjoining bouse having been given in 1611 by 
the Commander C. Bellot was restored in 1746 by 
the Assembly of Conventual Chaplains. 

Opposite to the Post Office is the Monte di 
Pieta, or Government Pawnbroking Establishment. 
In 1598 the Portuguese knight Emanuele Couros 
(Luiros?) offered £200, and the Cav. Francesco Moleti 
also advanced £100 for five years without interest 
to start the Monte, which commenced operations 
under the nan^e of Santa Anna, with the G. M. 
Garzes as patron. 

In 1607 Fra Baffaele Maltese, Capuchin Friar, 
proposed from the pulpit of St. John's Church the 
formation of a Monte di Bedensione for the ranaora of 
Maltese and Gozitans captured by the Turks. The 



125 

knights and Maltese eagerly subscribed, and in 1619 
Caterina Vitale a Maltese of noble birth, endowed 
the Monte with all her property and jewels. Six 
years afterwards Dr. G. D. Felici gave £600 for 
the same purpose. On June 23rd 1787 the Orand 
Master De Rohan united these two charitable ins- 
titutions. The French plundered the Monte of nearly 
£35000, but after the surrender of Valletta the En- 
glish Government advanced £5,300 without interest, 
end the institution is again prosperous. It benefits 
others besides the poor, as advances are made to 
the amount of £600. Precious metals and jewellery 
are retained for three years, linen for two years, cloth 
and woolen goods for six months, after which time 
unclaimed pawns are disposed of, any profits of sale 
being htoded over to the holders of the tickets. 
Interest 5 percent. Open from 8. 0. a,m. till 3. 0. p.m. 
A Savings 9 Bank open on Saturdays and Mondays 
from noon till 1. 0. p. m. and which allows interest 
at the rate of 2 per cent on amounts below £100, 
is attached to the Monte. The number of depositors 
on December 31st 1878 was 8,407, with £217,287, 0. 9. 
placed to their credit. In the Gozo Branch Bank 
241 depositors were credited with £9,120. 4. 7. The 
Committee of Charitable Institutions has managed the 
Monte since January 1st 1838, 

The street is crowded. On one side is the Go* 
▼amor's Palace, and on the other the Market House 
which was commenced in 1859 and completed in 
1861, a temporary Market being held meanwhile in 
the Lower Baracca. The old market House was very 
badly arranged. The new one, which Valletta owes 
to Baft 1 <5aspard Le Marchant, is square in form, 
with stores below. Light and airy in appearance, 



126 

it is divided into five gas-lighted avenues, with six 
entrances, three in front, and three at the sides. 
An electric clock keeps time, meat and poultry are 
on the right, fish at either end, and fruit and ve- 
getables are abundant and cheap. For weights see 
page 59. 

Turning for a moment out of Strada Mercanti 
into Strada Vescovo, the next cross street, and pas- 
sing a police-station, we enter the church of Our 
Lady of Damascus (Greek rite) built between 1576 
and 1580 at the expense of Giovanni Calamia, a 
noble Rhodian who followed the Order to Malta. 
This church was made parochial for the Greeks in 
1587, and contains a picture of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary which is said to have journeyed without hu- 
man aid from Damascus to Rhodes, after *the cap- 
ture of the former city by the Saracens. The pic- 
ture of the Resurrection is by Stefano Erardi. 

Returning to Strada Mercanti, we enter the church 
of the Jesuits, who were invited to Malta by Bishop 
Gargallo in 1593, and banished by the G. M. Pinto 
in 1768. The engineer Bonamici was the architect 
in 1592, and Bishop Gargallo, who is buried here, 
and whose portrait is in the sacristy, was a great 
benefactor. The church which consists of a choir, 
nave, and side aisles, was consecrated in 1731. The 
principal picture representing the Circumcision of 
Christ is by Baldassare Peruzzi, and in the second 
chapel from th§ entrance are three pictures by Mattia 
Preti. Two Oratories are connected with this church 
which is attached to the University. Roman Catholic 
soldiers attend mass here. 

The adjacent College was under the control of 
the Jesuits from 1592 until their expulsion in 1768, 



127 

when the Pope transferred their property to the Grand 
Master with the obligation to found a University. 
Great changes were made after the arrival of the En- 
glish in Malta, and also in 1839 in accordance with 
the report of the Royal Commissioners. The Uni- 
versity has four Faculties, viz., of Law, Philosophy 
Arts, Medicine, and Theology. The Museum is rich 
in geological and natural history specimens. Admis- 
sion free, on application to the Secretary. A Lyceum 
or preparatory school is connected with the Univer- 
sity. Both the Univerity and Lyceum are under the 
superintendence of a Rector. For the names of profes- 
sors, subjects of study, &c. see the Malta Almanacks. 
There are also Lyceums in the Three Cities and at 
Go&o. 

Jus£ below, on the left are the Dominican Church 
and Convent. The church which is also called Porto 
Salvo was originally designed by Gerolamo Cassar, 
and was rebuilt between 1804 and 18 1 5. It con- 
sists of a choir, nave, side aisles, and side chapels. 
The decorations are rich, and the principal picture 
is by P. P. Caruana. The Oratory of the Rosario 
is attached to the church. 

Nearly opposite is the church of the Anime 
Purganti or Souls in Purgatory. Originally dedicated 
to S. Nicola, it was built in 1580 as the first pa- 
rochial church of the Greek Rite, and rebuilt bet- 
ween 1652 and 1658 by the Society of the Anime. 
Purganti. It was consecrated in 17J32. The prin- 
cipal picture is by Mattia Preti, and there are two 
others in the sacristy by the Cav. Favray. The 
Grand Master Pinto appropriated a larger sum be- 
longing to this church, and on being* told that the 
souls would suffer in cousequence, replied "I am 



128 

very old, in a short time I shall join them, and I 
promise to settle with them!" 

Below the church is the Military Hospital, built 
in 1575, with accomodation for about 200 patients. 
It is large and spacious one portion being assigned 
to the sick belonging to the Malta Fencible Artil- 
lery. There are three quadrangles, one of which is 
surrounded by wide corridors, also quarters for me- 
dical officers, and a detachment of the Army Hos- 
pital Corps, a medical library containing about 1200 
volumes and a portrait of Dr. Henin, a celebrated 
anatomist, who died in 1754. In front of the libra- 
ry is a fountain with three stone pears, the arms 
of the Grand Master Perellos, carved upon it. The 
office of the Principal Medical Officer, and the Staff 
Dispensary are also here. In the Dispensary are a 
huge pestle and mortar of bell-metal, with the date 
1710, and the arms of Perellos. Above the guarded gate 
within the quadrangle is a sundial and the date 1774 
when £722 was spent in repairs. The basement walls 
are of enormous thickness, and one ward, at the ex- 
tremity of which is a picture representing the gift of 
the right hand of St. John the Baptist to the Grand 
Master D' Aubuason by the Sultan Bajazet, is said 
to be the longest room in Europe unsupported by 
pillars. It is 185 ft. 5 in. long, 34 ft. 9 in. broad, and 
30ft. 11 iu. high. 

Above a window is an unfinished inscription 
"Francisco Allet" the bells of the clock, removed some 
time since, were cast in 1646, and at the post- 
ern gate is the date 1633. Successive Grand Hos- 
pitaliers ruled the hospital, emblazoning their arms 
upon its walls. They, as well as the Infirroariana 
whom they appointed, belonged to the Language of 



129 

Pratice. The Infirmarian resided in the hospital, as 
did also at least one surgeon. In 1687 the physicians, 
surgeons, and students were numerous. The Hospital 
was a sanctuary, and all officers, except the Grand 
Hospitallers, were obliged to leave their badges of 
authority at the door. In 1712 the officials of the 
Inquisitors entered by surprise, but were instantly 
expelled. The Prior, Vice Prior, and other officers 
were appointed by the Grand Hospitaller. The Prior 
was a Conventual Chaplain, belonging to one of the 
"three Languages of France, Auvergne or Provence. The 
Vice Prior was usually a Maltese. The other offi- 
cers were, for the most part, Conventual Priests. 
The chapel was built by the Grand Master Perel- 
los in 1^ 12. Ten chaplains were attached to the 
hospital, in the centre of which was an altar. There 
were also altars in the various wards. This was 
the first hospital in Europe that admitted patients 
of various creeds. Patients who were not Roman 
catholics, and also those suffering from wounds and 
ulcers, had separate wards. The Great Hall con- 
tained 24 beds, which were reserved for the knights. 
There were usually 500 beds, with space for 2000. 
The annual average of patients was 2000, who were 
served on silver plata for the sake of cleanliness. 
This plate, which was afterwards melted down 
by the Order, or confiscated by the French, was 
on April 30th ] 788 valued at £3,449. The knights 
of Provence took charge of the patieifts on Sundays, 
and were followed by the other Languages accord- 
ing to seniority, the Anglo- Bavarian and the Ger- 
man Languages being united. Illegitimate and des- 
titute children were reared at an annual cost of 
£614, and Vertot estimates the whole yearly expense 
9 



130 

of the hospital at 50,000 golden crowns. In 1788 
the annual cost was £7,947, or a daily average of 
lOd. to 1*. per patient. The French, who lost at 
least 725 men between Sept. 1798 and August 1800, 
used the building as a Military Hospital, and it was 
subsequently used as a wine-store. The rope-walk 
of the Order, which cost in construction £542, was 
close by. John Howard gives a terrible account of 
this hospital in 1786, but on August 2nd, 1676, 
the Revd. H. Teonge, Chaplain of H. M. S. Bristol 
thus writes: — "The hospital is a vast structure, wherein 
their sick and wounded lye. 'Tis so broad that 12 
men may with ease walke a brest up the midst 
of it: and the beds are on each syd, standing on 
4 yron pillars, with white curtens, and vallands and 
covering, extreamly neate, and kept cleane and sweete: 
the sick served all in silver plate: and it containes 
above 200 bedds below, besyds many spatious roomes 
in other quadrangles with in; for the chiefe cava- 
liers and knights, with pleasant walkes and gardens; 
and a stately house for the chiefe doctor, and other 
his attendants." 

The sick soldier here receives every care and 
attention. There are also wards for women and 
children. A Laboratory and Meteorological Obser- 
vatory do useful scientific work. 

Facing the Hospital is the Gamerata, occupied 
by married soldiers and their families. On this site 
formerly stodll a large building, erected in 1593, 
and restored in 1696 by a grant from the Trea- 
sury. The rooms on the right were occupied by 
the pious knights who lived in community, assem- 
bling at stated hours for purposes of devotion. Those 
on the left were called La Lingerie, and were in 



131 

fact the linen stores of the hospital, as well as a 
laundry for bedding and clothing. The College of 
St. Paul directed by the Jesuits was transferred 
from Citti Yecchia and established here in 1852, 
but in 1869 Bishop Casolani erected on the old 
site the present building for the accommodation of 
poor families; it has since passed into the hands of the 
Government. 

The Camerata formerly possessed a Library, 
which was founded by the Commander Sansedoni, 
and augmented by the Bailiff Chiurlia Cavaniglia. 
Most of the books are now in the Public Library. 

Close to the hospital is its former cemetery. 
All Brethren of the Order were buried in their 
mantles 4 bee, i. e. with points, and with the white 
cross. "We order that the corpses of secular per- 
sons that die in our infirmary should be buried 
handsomely) that the chaplains shall walk before the 
corpse and pray for the soul of the deceased: that 
the four persons that carry the bier shall wear 
black robes which shall be made and kept for this, 
particular purpose." No mourning was to be worn 
at funerals, even for the Grand Master. On a por- 
tion of the cemetery stands a semicircular building 
used as a dissecting room by the medical students 
of the University, and close by is a large charnel 
house the walls of which were ornamented with 
bones and skulls by a priest some years since. 

Hard by stands the little church* of Nibbia or 
the Holy Name of Mary, erected in 1619 at the 
expense of the Commander Giorgio Nibbia, who was 
interred here. The church was rebuilt in 1731. 

The neighbouring Hospital for Incurables was 
formerly a female Hospital called La Cassetta, under 



132 

the charge of a Grand Cross and two Commissa- 
ries. It was endowed by a charitable lady named 
Caterina Scappi of Siena with all her property in 
1642, which bequest was augmented by a legacy of 
Flamminia Valenti in 1717. The Hospital formerly 
contained 250 inmates, bat at present accomodation 
is provided for 221. The chapel is dedicated to 
Santa Caterina, and the hospital was applied to its 
present use in 1850. 

Pacing the Hospital for Incurables was the 
Nunnery of Santa Maddalena, established here in 
1609. The French marched out the sisterhbod be- 
tween files of soldiers in 1798, and converted the 
building into a hospital, the sisters retiring to the 
Nunnery of Santa Caterina. The church »was used 
as a ward for patients suffering from wounds and 
broken limbs. It was consecrated by Monsignor Al- 
pheran on May 23rd 1748. The old Nunnery was 
in 1852 converted into an Orphan Asylum, attached 
to which are the Government Primary Normal Schools, 
the hospitals being removed to a new large build- 
ing at Ploriana. 

In rear of the Military Hospital are St. Laza- 
rus Curtain and the Castile Bastion, commanding a 
fine view of the open sea and of the Great Har- 
bour. 

Strada San Paolo runs parallel with* Strada Mer- 
canti. In thjs street are entrances to the Univer- 
sity and Lyceum, and the Church of St. Paul Ship- 
wrecked. It is said that an ancient chapel formerly 
stood on the site of Valletta, dedicated to St. Paul, 
which was almost destroyed during the Great Siege 
of 1565. The first church dedicated to St. Paul 
Shipwrecked was erected in 1677, at the expense 



133 

of the Cathedral, from the plans of Gerolamo Cas- 
sai\. The parochial boundaries were settled in 1605, 
and in 1591 a synod ordered the church to be enlarged. 
The present church was commenced inl639 and com- 
pleted in 1679. It is chiefly of the Ionic order of ar- 
chitecture, and is in the form of a Latin cross, consisting 
of a nave with six side chapels, two large chapels, 
and a sacristy. The treasury of the church con- 
tains many valuables, and, at certain times of the 
year, marriages are not only celebrated gratis, but 
the bride even receives a present of £8. 6. 8. 

This church claims to possess, amongst other re- 
lics, a portion of the column upon which St. Paul Buf- 
fered martyrdom. The principal picture representing 
the shipwreck of St. Paul is by Paladini. It con- 
tains a portrait of Bishop Gargallo, at whose expense 
it was painted. The picture of The Last Supper is by 
Favray: that of St Michael is by Mattia Preti, that 
of St. Martin by Stefano Erardi, and that p*i,St. 
Omobomo by the Maltese artist Ceci. A t>n ,den 
statue in the choir was carved at Rome bjrseUel- 
chiorre Gafa in 1657. The festival of the Shijjrwreck 
of St. Paul is celebrated annually on Feb. 10th. 

We turn into Strada Sen Giovanni, which is here, in 
very deed, a "street of stairs," and enter the Church 
of the Minori Osservanti (Franciscans). The adjoin- 
ing Convent was commenced in 1571 and com- 
pleted four years afterwards. The Grand Master Manoel 
contributed towards its'restoration, and^tdditions were 
made in 1810. The church is large and of composite 
architecture, consisting of a nave with side aisles, 
which were ornamented by the Grand Masters N. 
Cotoner and CarafFa. Much of the painting in the 
church was executed as a labour of love by various 



134 

Maltese artists. Near the church is the Oratory of 
the Crucifixion. The present building dates from 
1698. The principal picture in the church, repre- 
senting the Betrothal of Santa Caterina is by Antonio 
Catalano and was painted in 1600. The picture of 
St. Carlo Borromeo and other saints is ascribed to 
Guido Beni: and that of Our Lady of Sorrows is 
by Brardi. 

Turning to the left at the corner of the church 
we find ourselves in Strada Sant' Ursola, in which 
are the Church of San Rocco and the Church and 
Nunnery of Sant* Ursola. The former was founded 
in 1592 by the University of Malta in fulfilment 
of a vow on: the cessation of the plague. After the 
plague of 1675-6 the Giurati of Valletta, making a 
vow in the name of the University rebuilt it in 
1680. Lorenzo Gafa was the architect, and the Grand 
Master Carafa defrayed much of the cost. The church 
whiokucontains two pictures by Brardi was solemnly 
blesJ85_ on August 12th 1681. An institution of 
Catlfrhicj Bducation for Children was established on 
MardBr 25th 1863. 

The Ursoline Nunnery was founded by the Grand 
Master Verdala in 1583, transferred from Vittoria 
to its present site in 1595, and enlarged by the Grand 
Master Pinto in 1759. The nuns belong to the Order 
of Saint John of Jerusalem, and still wear the cloak 
of that order. They received an annual pension from 
its funds of £594. 

The church was restored by the Grand Master 
De Paola, whose arms are over the entrance. The 
roof was painted in 1717 by Alessio Brardi at the 
expense of the Grand Master Perellos. The prin- 
cipal picture representing the martyrdom of Santa 



135 

Ursola is by Mattia Preti. The silver group repre- 
senting the Flagellation, was given to the Grand 
Master Pinto, by Monsignor Gregorio Salviati, on 
his arrival in Malta as Inquisitor in 1754. 

Turning to the right into Strada Cristoforo, we 
pass on the right No, 12 the Palazzo Connidi, built 
as his escutcheon testifies, by the Grand Master 
Perellos (p. 57), ■ and on the left the ancient Slave 
and Civil Prisons (see Howard's Hospitals and La- 
zaret toes of Europe). The slaves were about 4000 
in number, obtained either by capture or purchase, 
and were employed in the construction of fortifications, 
the manufacture of cotton sail cloth, or as domestic 
servants. Their prisons maintained at a yearly cost 
of £3,826, were miserable places. The Order spent 
£449 per* annum in purchasing slaves, whilst the 
ransom of these hapless captives brought in £1,661. 
Constant fears of a rising were entertained. Slaves 
who had been baptised, and Maltese convicts were 
kept separated from the rest. The Civil Prison had 
in the centre a large courtyard for exercise, intersected 
by four diagonal walls meeting in the centre. Govern* 
ment schools and stables, together with the vast 
wine stores of Messrs Woodhouse and Co. occupy 
the old prisons. This firm has been established 
here ever since the arrival of the English. We note 
that Sicilian wine is kept in casks of chestnut wood, 
but other wines in American oak. 

Strada Cristoforo is behind us, an$ on our left is 
Strada Irlandese or " Irish Street" with numerous 
blacksmiths' shops, leading to St. Lazarus Curtain 
and the Military Hospital. On our right is Strada 
Levante. Immediately before us is the Lower Ba- 
racca, with a monument to the memory of Sir A. 



136 

J. Ball, "who seems to have been a good man all 
round," and who has found a grave at Fort St. 
Elmo, in the bastion which bears his name. The 
monument is a miniature reproduction of the Tem- 
ple of Theseus at Athens, and is fast going to de- 
cay. This Baracca was, like the other, formerly 
roofed. The enclosure was converted into a market 
garden by the French during the siege of 1798- 
1800; and during the erection of the new Market-, 
house in Strada Mercanti, a temporary market was 
held here under canvas. From hence we have a 
fine view of Valletta, the Great Harbour, the Three 
Cities, and Fort Ricasoli. 

Returning to Strada Levante we note a large 
wooden shed, which is the centre of the wholesale ve- 
getable market. Strada Levante, in whfch dwell 
marble cutters and ship-chandlers, has on the right 
the Ursuline Nunnery, and on the left the Ca- 
stile Curtain, and the Bastion of Santa Barbara. 
From the broad terrace of the latter we have a 
fine view of the harbour. The old ice-house is here 
which, when snow from Sicily was scarce, reserved 
its stores for the use of the hospital. Facing the 
street of the same name is the Church of Santa 
Lucia, built in 1570, and originally dedicated to 
San Francesco di Paola. It was served by the 
Dominicans until the erection of their convent in 
1771, and was rebuilt by the wine merchants of 
the marina wjjh the dedication of Santa Lucia and 
San Vinceuzo Ferreri. 

At the Marina Gate is a fountain surmounted 
by a marble Baptism of Christ with the Latin in- 
scription. " Amongst those born of women there 



137 

hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist/ 1 close 
to which is a standard barometer. 

To the left of the drawbridge are bamboo-using 
basket makers, and on the right the "Sultan's Garden" 
laid out by the Grand Master Lascaris, who also 
built close by a house wherein the Grand Master 
and his knights might play cards, regaling them- 
selves meanwhile with ices and sherbet. The word 
"Sultan" means in Maltese a "King" or "ruler." 
In this garden is a fountain with papyrus plants. 
The house was afterwards occupied by the Captain 
of the Port, but was pulled down a few years since, 
and its site occupied by Fort Lascaris, which is 
garrisoned by the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery. 

On the left are the beggar haunted "Nix Man- 
giare" dr "nothing to eat" Stairs, visited by Mid- 
shipman Easy, at the bottom of which is a landing 
place off which lie steamers and sailing craft. To 
the left is a range of stores built by the Grand 
Master Perellos, and the old Health Office over the 
door of which is a Latin inscription which means 
"Love of the People did this." The little church 
of SS. Salvatore formerly stood here, for the bene- 
fit of persons in quarantine. It has been demo- 
lished, and the bronze bust of Our Saviour is above 
the principal door of St, John's Church. On the 
quay are a number of stone pillars, connected when 
necessary by wooden bars, and called the Barriera. 
Here merchants and others were aljpwed to speak 
to their friends in quarantine. Two thousand per- 
sons could assemble here. The curious in ancient 
rules of quarantine at Malta are reienvJ to M. 
Houel's Voyage Pittoresque (1687,) in iiie Public 
Library. 



138 

* 

Either once more climbing the Stairs of Nix 
Mangiare, and descending a slope, or else following 
the shore we reach the semi-circular fish market, 
erected by the Grand Master Despnig. The fountain 
in the centre was formerly surmounted by a statue of 
Neptune which is now at the Palace. 

On our right is the much venerated Church 
of Our Lady of Liesse with its legend of Ismaria and 
the three captive knights. It was first built in 1620 
at the expense of the Bailiff d' Armenia, and belonged 
to the Language of France, by which it was rebuilt 
in 1740. The principal picture is by Enrico Arnaux, 
and refers to the legend above alluded to. The 
French knights were specially devoted to this church, 
and the Gomte de Beaujolais, brother of Louis Phi- 
lippe, directed that his heart should be intenfed here. 
Tne marble altar was given by a former rector, 
and the church contains an image of the Virgin, 
which was brought from Fort St. Elmo or, some 
say, from Liesse in Picardy. 

We pass through a tunnel called the Mina Las- 
caris, it having been cut through a projecting rock 
by that Grand Master, as a Latin inscription above 
the entrance testifies. At the further extremity is 
the Dogana or Custom House. A portion of the 
site was formerly called "the bay of insects/' this 
being the basking place of the slaves. The Custom 
House was built on piles by the civil and military 
architect Giuseppe Bonnici, a pupil of the Chev. 
Tigne, during the rule of the Grand Master Xi- 
menes. Exports are free, and ships taking a cargo 
from the island pay no tonnage. For duties on 
imports see the Malta Almanacks. It was origin- 
ally intended to accomodate exports here, but the 



139 

space designed for that purpose is now occupied by 
the Port Department. Just within the entrance of 
the Custom House is a monument to the Cavaliere 
Ginlio Amati, an Italian Knight and Admiral of 
the Order, who, at his own expense, greatly im- 
proved the landing place in 1651 before the erec- 
tion of the Custom House. This monument was 
rescued from oblivion by the Hon, V. Inglott C. M. 6. 
Collector of Customs, who has most kindly given me 
much valuable information. The Long Boom is or- 
namented with a complete series of the escutcheons 
of the Grand Masters, and there are in the build- 
ing portraits both of the founder and architect, and 
also a picture of the quay previous to the erection 
of the Custom House. 

TheP busy bustling Marina is always full of 
interest to the traveller. On one side is the har- 
bour with its numerous steamers, sailing craft, men 
of war, speronaras and dghaisas, and on the other 
are long ranges of stores erected by the Grand 
Masters Lascaris, Pinto and Zondadari and also by 
the Universita of supplies, which provided Malta 
not with learning, but with corn, meat, oil, and 
charcoal, for 250 years until its abolition in 1818. 
Some of these stores were for the supply of the 
galleys and men of war. The Order intended to 
establish its arsenal near the site of the present 
Custom House, but the sparks from the pipe of an 
idiot, who chanced to stand upon th^Baracca, burnt 
a new galley, and the design was abandoned as too 
dangerous. 

Calcara Gate, at which a guard is posted, and 
which is reached by the steep ascent of the Cro- 
cefisso from the Marina, is named from a kiln a* 



140 

which all the lime was burnt for the public build- 
ings of the Order. At the end of the nineteen Pinto 
stores is a small church erected by the same Grand 
Master in 1752, close to which is a fountain which 
supplies water to shipping. The old Naval Bakery 
was adjacent to the church, and is at present used 
as an oil store. 

We pass through the Right Marina Gate. A- 
bove is the Capuchin Monastery, and around us are 
the Ordnance Wharf, Gas Works, Mortuary, a Flour 
Mill, and the Government Slaughter-house. 

An obelisk marks the former termination of an 
avenue of poplars planted by the Grand Master 
Manoel de Vilhena. We have now completed our 
itinerary of Valletta. 



141 
CHAPTER VI. 



Floi^iana, 



Politeama Theatre.— The Suburb of Vilhena. — Gates 
and Fortifications. — The Maglio, and Pavillion. — Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Home. St. Francis' Barracks, Princess' Theatre, 
Capuchin Convent. — Wignacourt's Aqueducts, and Bouve- 
rie. — Churches of Sarria and Saint Publio. — The Argotti 
Garden, Casa di Manresa, and Central Civil Hospital. — 
Floriana Barracks, Charitable Institutions, and English Ceme- 
teries. — Sa Maison and its Recreation Ground. 



JUST outside Porta Reale is an obelisk with no 
inscription, and below us is the Politeama The- 
atre, open during the summer, for Italian performan- 
ces at moderate prices. A winding road through 
the fortifications brings us to a large open space, 
commanding a fine view over the Great Harbour 
and the interior of the island. Before us is the 
suburb of Floriana, named after Col. Pietro Paolo 
Florani, an Italian engineer in the service of the 
Pope, (by whom he was despatched to Malta at the 
request of the GraDd Master, in the year 1635.) 
who designed the fortifications by which it is defended. 
It is also called the "Suburb of Vilhena," who or- 
dered the erection of many of its buildings. It has 
four gates. The one giving access to the Quaran- 
tine harbour is called "della Marina/' and also "under 
the gallows" as criminals were formerly executed 
close by. 



142 

Notre Dame Gate opening towards the country 
13 called " the gate of pears," from the arms of the 
Grand Master Perellos, viz, three pears. 

St. Ann's Gate, sometimes styled " Porter's 
Straits/' (having been remodelled by Major Porter 
R. B.,) is the "Dog's Gate," from two pillars sur- 
mounted by dogs which formerly stood on either 
side. 

The outer gate, called Porte des Bombes, which 
derives its name from some large stone shells, was 
erected in 1721, and has upon it the arms of the 
Grand Master Perellos. This gate and that of St. 
Ann were rebuilt in 1868. 

The French were repulsed at this point in 1798 
and marks of shot fired from the Maltese batteries, 
during the two years' siege, are still to be seen. 
By this gate the allied English, Maltese and Nea- 
politan troops entered Valletta in 1800. 

The fortifications commenced in 1636 were dis- 
continued two years afterwards, and not recommenced 
until 1716, the defences of Margarita Hill and the 
Cotonera Lines having been taken in hand mean- 
while. Part of the cost was defrayed by a corn- 
tax of about 7d. per qr. 

To the left is a large parade ground, sacred 
to drill and cricket, whilst directly facing us is the 
Jfaglio or Mall, which forms a pleasant and favour- 
ite walk. It was laid out in 1805, during the 
rule of {Sir At J. Ball, is maintained by the Go- 
vernment, and contains a bust of Dr. Luigi Pisani 
who died in 1865. This spot was formerly set 
apart for the game of hand-ball, and the Grand 
Master Lascaris ordered the erection of a Latin 
inscription to that effect. 



143 

To the left of the Maglio are numerous Fosse 
for grain, which contain many qrs. and form a large 
paved space known as "the granaries," a favourite 
public resort. Military and other bands often per- 
form here. The Pavillion now occupied by the of- 
ficers of the Infantry Regiment quartered at the 
Floriana Barracks was originally built by the Uni- 
versity of Supplies as the Market of Floriana. 

The houses in this suburb are arranged in blocks 
and the streets intersect at right angles. Through 
the centre runs Strada Sant' Anna, a broad street 
with arcades on either side. 

In the Piazza Maggiore is the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Home, of which the Revd. J. Webster, Wes- 
leyan Minister to the Forces, is Secretary and Trea- 
surer, and which is doing good work in our midst. 
It has a well furnished Library and Reading Room, 
Dining and Smoking Rooms, with ample smoking 
accomodotion. Charges' very moderate. The Secre- 
tary will be glad to receive contributions. 

At the end of the cross streets, we have a 
fine view of the Great Harbour, and near tbe outer 
defences are St. Francis' Barracks, the head quar- 
ters of the Royal Engineers. 

Adjoining the Barracks is the Princess' Theatre 
in which the R. E. Dramatic Club and other amateurs 
tread the boards. A large wooden cross stands on 
St. Mark's Bastion, close to which are several Fosse 
for grain, and we reach the Capuchin Church and 
Convent. The former is dedicated to the Invention 
of the Holy Cross, and was consecrated in 1773. 
The principal picture was painted by Paladini, at 
the expense of the Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner. 
The picture of St. Francis is the work of Erardi. 



144 

An image of the B. V. Mary is kept here which 
some Christian slaves brought from Constantino- 
ple, having made themselves masters of a Turkish 
galley. A quaint picture commemorates this event. 

The Convent was founded in 1588, (the archi- 
tect being Gerolamo Cassar.) but has since been 
restored and enlarged. It has a good library and 
the monks number about 60. They support them- 
selves and a large number of the poor and afflict- 
ed by means of daily-collected charity. If you visit 
the Convent, do not forget to give alms ! For many 
visitors come hither to see what are popularly cal- 
led the "Baked Monks." The bodies of deceased 
monks» are placed in niches, in a vault, dressed in 
the robes which they wore during life. They have 
not, however, been embalmed, baked, or otherwise 
prepared, but have simply been laid for at least 
twelve months in sloping graves. This is not a 
Maltese/ but a Sicilian custom, introduced by the 
first Fathers who founded the Convents. Deceased 
brethren are now interred in the Addolorata Ce- 
metery. The Church of Rome tolerates such expo- 
sition of the remains of the faithful simply as a 
check to human pride. 

We pass St. Ann's Gate and fountain erected 
in 1728 by the Grand Master Vilhena, and skirt- 
ing St. Ann's Curtain, reach a tower which serves 
as a drinking fountain supplied by the Grand Mas- 
ter Alofio Wignacourt's aqueduct, about which we 
must say a few words. 

It was commenced in 1610 in order to supply Val- 
letta with water, which was formerly brought with 
great labour from a spring called Ghain - Filep 
at the head of the Great Harbour. Several springs 



145 

amongst the Bingemma Hills were united by means 
of pipes, and their waters led into one channel. 
The principal spring is at Diar Ghandul about 9| 
miles distant from Valletta. The whole cost of the 
work was £15,480, of which £11,480 was defrayed 
by Wignacourt himself, the remaining £4000 being 
made up by a tax upon the Public Granaries and 
Bakery. The first architect was Padre Natale To- 
masucci a Jesuit of Messina, who brought the water 
as far as Casal Attard. He then resigned, and the 
work was completed by Bontadino. On April 21st 
1615 the water was admitted into a fountain in 
the centre of St. George's Square, amidst great pub- 
lic rejoicings. All praise to Wignacourt giver of 
water. The aqueduct supplies a daily average of 
108,000 gallons to Valletta and Floriana. 

To the slight detriment of rural gardens, but 
to the great benefit of the Three Cities of Burmola, 
Vittoriosa, and Senglea, which were formerly depend- 
ent upon the somewhat brackish water found at 
the head of the Great Harbour, Sir H. F. Bouve- 
rie constructed an aqueduct, which collects the 
waters of numerous springs at Fauara, Imtahleb, 
and in the neighbourhood of the Casals of Curmi and 
Dingli, &c. It runs underground to the Three Cit- 
ies a distance of about seven miles, and supplies 
daily about 57 600 gallons. 

Opposite the aqueduct tower is the circular 
Church of the Conception of the B. V. M., usually 
called Sarria, having been built at the expense of 
a Navarrese knight of that name in 1585. During 
the visitation of the plague in 1675-6 the Grand 
Master R. Cotoner and the Council vowed to build 
a church upon the site of this old chapel, which 

10 



146 

was accordingly done in 1678. Several pictures by 
Mattia Preti were placed here. The picture of Santa 
Anna is by A. Falzon. In the sacristy are portraits 
of the founder and of the Grand Master Cotoner, 
together with an ancient picture, which, perhaps, 
belonged to the old church. 

Close by is the Parish Church, dedicated to 
S. Pubblio. The first stone of the present structure 
was laid in 1733 by Bishop Alpheran de Bussan, 
but it was not completed until 1768. It was en- 
larged between 1856 and 1862, and now consists 
of a choir, nave, two large chapels, an<J side aisles. 
The principal picture representing the Martyrdom 
of San Pubblio is by Favray. Near these churches 
are large Infant and Primary Schools, and hard by 
the end of the Maglio is the Argotti Garden, in 
which was formerly the house of the Bailiff 
Argotti. It is a pleasant place of resort, and was 
much improved by the late Lieut. General Villettes, 
to whose memory a monument has been erected 
within it. 

Nearly opposite are the Church and House of 
San Calcedonio, which are also styled those of "Our 
Lady of Manresa." This almshouse owes its origin 
to Father Francesco Bosignoli, and was opened in 
1751. It serves as a religious retreat for pious per- 
sons during the days of Carnival, for candidates 
for ordination, and for pious ecclesiastics and lay- 
men. In 1868 Bishop Pace Forno founded a se- 
minary in this building at his own expense with 
a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrow. 

The chapel of this almshouse owes its origin 
to Don Pietro Infante of Portugal, Grand Prior of 



147 

Crato, and was consecrated in 1786. It contains 
pictures by the Cav. Favray and other artists. 

Facing the Casa di Manresa is the Central Civil 
Hospital originally built as a Conservatorio for Poor 
Girls by the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena. In 
1825 great reforms were introduced. The inmates, 
about 200 in number, were taught various trades 
and occupations. They could not go out without 
permission, but might become domestic servants un- 
der proper sanction. They might leave to be mar- 
ried, but could not return again. 

The outbreak of cholera* in 1837 checked the 
prosperity of the Institution, and about thirty years 
ago the building was appropriated to its present 
use. The girls were removed to the Aged Asylum 
and gradually dispersed. 

The Hospital with accomodation for 250 patients 
has a daily average of 170, and its professional 
staff comprises, in addition to two Visiting Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, three . resident professional men. 
The sick are tended by Sisters of Charity, and are 
visited by clergymen of their own faith. The remo- 
val of this hospital to another site is under con- 
sideration. 

At the back of the Hospital are the Floriana 
Barracks, which are occupied by an . infantry regi- 
ment. 

Passing through the neighbouring Polverista Gate 
we see the Asylum for the Aged *and Infirm, 
which was built for a powder mill by the Grand 
Master Pinto in 1762. Col. Porter says that the 
saltpetre was refined at another mill in Valletta, 
the process of manufacture being completed here. 
These two mills could, produce 1408 lbs. weekly ^at 



148 

bid. per lb. Farther supplies were procured from 
France. 

The building is now occupied by about 700 aged 
and infirm persons, and connected witji it is the 
Female Prison (having on an average nineteen prison- 
ers with light sentences), under the amiable custody 
of a Sister of Charity. Also, the Magdalen Asylum 
containing about fifteen voluntary inmates, and the 
Foundling Hospital, in which, in 1878, sixteen young 
children were being nursed. 

Close to this Asylum a road leads to the cem- 
eteries long since fiilled with English dead, which 
afford food for much quiet and profitable thought. 

Passing the Asylum, and threading our way 
through a labyrinth of fortifications, we reach Sa 
Maison, the old home of a Bailiff of thdt name. 

The Government house which formerly stood 
here is said to have been used for the meetings 
of the Masonic Lodge, founded in 1785 by the 
Bohemian Count Kollowart. Great numbers of knights 
were initiated, and the Grand Master Rohan only 
closed the Lodge in consequence of stringent orders 
from Home. 

The Malta General Recreation Club has estab- 
lished itself at Sa Maison. Family Tickets, 15s. 
per annum; 5a. per month. Single Ticket 10s per 
annum; 2a. 6d. per month. Full particulars on appli- 
cation to the Secretary. The gardens are tastefully 
laid out, and« we pass a curious well with quaint 
carvings. Fortifications are above us and around us. 
Connecting two bastions is the celebrated arch of 
Sa Maison thrown across a small ravine called Giorff 
Id-del, or the "Shady Precipice" which has since 
been filled in with stones and earth, and in which. 



149 

formerly dwelt a hermit. This arch was constructed 
by the Maltese Architect and Superintendent Gio- 
vanni Barbara who assisted Col. Floriani in the 
erection of these works. It is intended for the pas- 
sage of artillery, and curves obliquely for more than 
half its length. Its diameter is 42 feet 6 in., its 
thickness 35 feet, and it presents a different ap- 
pearance according to the position of the spectator. 
Amongst other monuments we remark one to 
" Rose " the favourite dog of the Band of the 74th 
Highlanders, with these lines: 

Of you my new comers, 
I humbly request 
This small spot of ground, 
• Wherein I may rest. 

The road to the left leads directly, and that 
to the right by a more circuitous route, back to 
Floriana and Valletta. 



9 



i 



150 



CHAPTER VII. 

Pembroke Camp, St, Julians, 

and Sliema. 

The Wimbledon of Malta.— St. Julian's Bay, and the 
Forrest Hospital, — Fougasses. — Jesuit College. — The Forgot- 
ten Church. — Boat and carriage fares. — Cure for fever. — 
Sliema. — Officers' Bathing House, and Fort Tigne\ — Chur- 
ches of Sliema. — Fort Manoel and its Island.— The Lazaretto, 
Misida and the Hydraulic Dock.*— Pieta and its Cemeteries. 

4 

AT a distance of about four and a half miles by 
road from Valletta is Pembroke Camp: Sliema, 
and St. Julians are not quite four miles away. But 
Sliema can be reached in a few minutes by boat 
from the Marsamuscetto Steps, Fare 3c?, (or, in com- 
pany with other passengers, id), and from thence 
to St. Julians and Pembroke Gamp is only a short 
walk or drive. Targets, firing-points, and the crack 
of rines are the prevailing characteristics of Pembroke 
Camp, which is named after the late Lord Herbert 
of Lea. The first stone was laid by H. B. H. the 
Prince of Wales on June 6th 1862. The camp has 
accomodation for 1200 men, and was built at a 
cost of abouf £20 per man, or about one-fifth of 
the ordinary cost of barracks. Brawny arms which 
first gained pith and vigour on the shores of the 
English Channel, here love to breast the laughing 
sunlit waves with sturdy stroke, or to pull vigor- 
ously seawards, in some or other of the many boats 



151 

which He moored within the land-locked bay. But 
Pembroke Camp is also a place for hard work, as 
every soldier in Malta is well aware, a place for 
acquiring skill in the use of the " Martini, " and 
the scene of the Annual Malta Bifle Meeting. Pem- 
broke Camp is our Maltese Wimbledon. The neigh- 
bouring St. George's Bay, to guard which a tower 
was built by the Grand Master Lascaris, is named, 
according to Ciantar, from a neighbouring church. 
The guard stationed at this point was called "the 
western look-out." The mansion of the Marchese 
Bcicluna stands upon Dragonara Point, which is 
called by the natives Chark el Hamiem or "the 
doves' cleft/' as wild doves found rest there. The 
noise of # the waves gave rise to wild stories that this 
was the home of either a sea-monster or gigantic 
eels, and that the waters of this bay had a sub- 
terranean connection with those of the Great Harbour. 
St. Julian's Bay was fortified at the expense 
of the Grand Master Pinto. Just outside are St. 
George's Bank, with from four to seven fathoms of 
water upon it, and the Spinola or Mercanti Beefy 
named after the Bailiff Spinola, who had a country 
house here, which is at present called the For- 
rest Hospital, from its originator Dr. Forrest, Ins- 
?ector of Hospitals. It is a Military Hospital, 
'he church which gave its name to the bay 
is now called Ta Lapsi or "the Ascension," possibly 
from a picture by Baffaele Caruana; it*was founded in 
1580, rebuilt in 1682, made vice- parochial in 1848> 
and enlarged between August 20th 1852 and Feb. 
20th 1853, when it was re-blessed. The principal 
picture represents the assumption of the B. V. Mary, 
with S. S> Peter and Paul. 



152 

On the shore below the Forrest Hospital is a 
fongasse or mortar cut oat of the rock, intended 
to hurl showers of stones upon hostile boats. These 
fougasses were formerly about fifty in number, the 
mouths of some being six feet across. Others may 
be seen at St. Paul's Bay and Marsa Scala. On 
the beach is a statue of St. Julian. In May 1768 
abundance of alabaster was found near the shore, 
and used to beautify the Palace. 

A Protestant College formerly existed at St. Ju- 
lians, of which the late Dr. Gobat, afterwards An- 
glican Bishop of Jerusalem was the first principal. 
The grounds, which are planted with orange and other 
trees, slope down to the shores of the bay and com- 
mand a fine view seaward. The Protestant College 
proved a failure, and the buildings were in A^ril 1877 
occupied by the Jesuits, who have purchased them, 
and are making great improvements. A new Col- 
lege chapel is in eourse of erection, also a dormitory 
70 feet long, class rooms, and Professors' houses, &c. 
This College will probably do much to raise the stand- 
ard of education in Malta. 

Close to the shore in the district called Tal Bal- 
lut. or "the oaks" is the pretty church of the Ma- 
donna del Carmelo, the foundation stone of which was 
laid on Nov. 21st 1S58, and which was built at the 
expense of the Valletta confraternity "del Carmine." 
Sig. Gius. Bonavia was tbe architect, and it was 
solemnly blessed on Sept. 18th 1859. It is proposed 
to build a new Military Hospital on the hill-top 
above the bay. Not far from the intended site is 
the curious rock-hewn church of Minsia or " the 
forgotten/' fashioned about four centuries ago. Tbe 
priest who lives close by keeps the key, and we 



153 

descend a flight of steps. There are the usual 
votive offerings. One picture represents the burn- 
ing of a line-of- battle ship about the year 1800, 
and another pourtrays a scene at Floriana during 
the Plague of 1813. Near the church is a pictu- 
resque valley. 

Many English officers and residents live at Slie- 
ma and St. Julian's Bay, which is a favourite and 
rapidly increasing suburb of Valletta. Boat from 
Marsamuscetto steps to landing place at Sliema 3d. 
four-wheeler from thence to St. Julian 8d., go-cart 
4d. Four-wheeler from Valletta round the head of 
the Quarantine Harbour 1#. 8d. Return 2s. 6d. Houses 
may be obtained at moderate rentals. Tariff changes 
proposed. The English church at Sliema, (Holy Tri- 
nity), is Conveniently situated for residents at St. Ju- 
lian's Bay. The situation is healthy, and sea-bathing 
very enjoyable, with a bottom of sand in some places. 

Fever- patients were formerly placed in the sand 
and mud at the head of the farther arm of the bay, 
and afterwards washed in a neighbouring spring. 
This was considered an almost certain cure. Along 
the shore are numerous salt-pans, which are Go- 
vernment property, and which used to be under 
the control of the Grand Master's Secretary. There 
is a heavily armed battery on Sliema Point and 
not far off another fort is in course of construc- 
tion, yet one more link in that girdle of stone and 
iron which will ere long completely ,* encircle tC The 
Flower of the World/' which is beyond all question 
one of the brightest jewels in the British crown. 
How many there are now scattered far and wide 
over the world's surface, who have, at some time 
or other j called Sliema or St. Julians " home ! " 



154 

and to whom the very mention of those names 
calls back pleasant memories of happy family life, 
memories which, perchance, cannot now be recalled 
without a Certain huskiness of voice, and an unwonted 
dimness of vision. 

Sliema derives its name from a church dedi- 
cated to our Lady of Safety, which Maltese sailors 
used to salute when entering or leaving port. Sliema 
is a Maltese word meaning "Hail" and is equivalent to 
the Latin "Ave." This church was built in the 17th 
century, restored in 1 741, incorporated with a six-gun 
battery constructed in 1757 and 1760 by the Grand 
Master Pinto at Cala-ta-lembi or "Basin Bay," and fi- 
nally destroyed by the fire of the Maltese batteries dur- 
ing the siege of 1798-1800. The magazine of Pinto's 
battery was called Santa Barbara, she being the 
patroness of guns and gunners. The magazine of 
a French man-of-war is called St. Barbe. 

The rapidly increasing population of Sliema al- 
ready numbers nearly 3000. During the last few years 
many new and handsome houses have been built, 
and numerous shops opened. The principal hotel 
is the Imperial (p. 55), and during the summer 
months a branch of the Union Club is opened in 
Sliema. 

Along the shores of the Quarantine Harbour 
are numerous baths. Take a dip: only 4d an hour. 
Close to Fort Tigne an Officers' Bathing House 
has been erected, fitted up with every comfort, at 
which refreshments can be obtained. Admission is 
limited to Officers of the Fleet and Garrison, and 
to visitors introduced under certain restrictions. 

Fort Tign6 stands upon Dragut Point, off which 
is the Dragut Bock. Both the rock and the point 



155 

bear the name of the famous Algerine corsair who 
was second in command during the Great Siege of 
1565, and "who had the wisest head and the bra- 
vest heart in all that mighty host. " He erected 
a four-gun battery upon this point at the entrance 
of the Quarantine or Marsamuscetto Harbour. This 
harbour derives its name from the Arabic words 
"Harsa" "a port/' and "nagh hus eiait" "not an open 
coast," meaning therefore "a harbour to winter in." It 
lies to the west of Valletta, and is principally used 
by vessels not admitted to free pratique, whence 
its name of the Quarantine Harbour. The P. and 
0. steamers are however always moored in it for 
convenience of coaling and easy access to their stores. 
The steamers belonging to the Telegraph Companies 
also lie here. It is defended on the East by Fort. St. 
Elmo and other batteries, and on the West by Forts 
Manoel and Tign4 in conjunction with the coast de- 
defences of Shema. Fort Tign6 was constructed and 
solemnly dedicated in 1793 by the Grand Master 
Emanuel de Rohan and named after the Chevalier 
de Tigne who designed it under the direction of 
the Commander Stephen de Tousand. The latter 
caused solemn prayers to be offered "that the 
very good and great God would prosper the under- 
taking." Copper and silver coins were placed be- 
neath the foundation stone, and the Grand Master 
sanctioned a contribution from the treasury. This 
small fort has been modernised and greatly strength- 
ened and has a small garrison of artillerymen. Many 
cavities have been worn by the waves in the soft 
limestone cliffs. The fossil echinus or sea egg is 
found here, and the echinus sphcena is abundant 
all along the coast from E. to W. Gregates 0** 



156 

north easters have laid bare the hard crystalline lime 
stone, and saltpans are numerous. The Malta Gun Club 
meets at Fort Tign£, usually on Tuesdays. Entrance 
£1. Members pay Is when taking part in the 
Shooting. The Royal Malta Yacht Squadron, of which 
the Admiral Superintendent is ex officio Commodore, 
often musters here. 

To return to Sliema. The Eastern Telegraph Co. 
has a Branch Office at 3, Strada Ghar Illembi. The 
foundation stone of Holy Trinity Church (Anglican) 
was laid on Sept. 20th 1866, by the late Sir W. J. 
tiidley, then administering the Government of Malta, 
and the church was consecrated on April 23rd 1867, 
by the Right Revd. Dr. Trower, the late Bishop of 
Gibraltar, to whom its erection is due, and who de- 
frayed much of the cost. The church is built in the 
Early English style, with about 200 sittings, on a 
commanding site overlooking the open sea and the 
Quarantine Harbour. The present chaplain is the 
Revd. J. Knight Law B. A. and the services are duly 
advertised in the local papers. Church expenses and 
other funds are provided for by means of offertories. 
The Parsonage is close to the church. 

A large Roman Catholic Church is being built 
by voluntary labour, but at present the principal 
church of that faith in Sliema is dedicated to the 
B. V. Mary under the title of "the Star of the Sea." 
The first stone was laid on April 28th 1853. The 
22nd Nov. 1854 saw the church completed, and it 
was blessed on August 11th 1855. The architect 
G. Bonavia drew the plans gratuitously, superintended 
the work for two years, and presented the church 
with a bell. It holds 600 persons, was built at a 
n ost of £1200, and is of the Ionic style of archi- 



157 

tecture. The principal picture is by Raffaele Caruana, 
and the festival is on the Sunday after August 18th. 

Sliema is connected with Valletta by a good road 
which is much used as a pleasant drive on summer 
evenings. Pare by four-wheeler about 2s. In the 
Quarantine harbour is Gezira or "the Island," gene* 
rally known as Fort Manoel Island, and connected 
with the mainland by a bridge. This is a favourite 
spot, with the botanist and ornithologist (See Tal- 
lack's Malta under the Phoenicians, Knights and 
English" also Seddall's "Malta Past and Present"). 
On this island stands Fort Manoel built in 1726 
by the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena at his own 
expense. The estimated cost was only £2,500 but 
whether this amount was exceeded we know not. 
It was Constructed for the protection of Valletta on 
the side of the Quarantine Harbour, whioh was pre- 
viously almost defenceless. The whole design of Mons. 
de Tign£ (who was not the engineer who built Fort 
Tign^) has never been carried out, 

The Fort has accomodation for a garrison of 
329 men, with officers' quarters, &c. Its founder 
not only provided it with all things necessary, but 
also endowed it with a yearly income of £1050 for 
the support of the Governor, his Lieutenant, Chap- 
lain, and Garrison. The first Governor was the Bai- 
liff F. D. Kmanuele Sousa, a Portuguese, whose first 
Lieutenant was Fr. Giuseppe Coulon, a Frenchman 
who defrayed the cost of the chapel, of St. George 
in the ohurch of the Fort. This church dedicated 
to St. Anthony of Padua is now used as a chapel 
school, and Divine Service is performed in it every 
Sunday by the Chaplains to the Forces. Its archi- 
tecture, carvings, and monuments, deserve careful 



158 

preservation, and are worth a visit. Its first Rector 
was Fr. Mederico Attard, who erected four of the 
six altars which the church formerly contained, and 
established two pious Confraternities. In the centre 
of the square formerly stood a statue of the foun- 
der, the work of the Cav. Savasse, with a suitable 
inscription on the pedestal. This statue was removed 
by order of Sir Gaspard Le Marchant whilst Go- 
vernor of Malta and placed in front of the Public 
Library. Over the principal entrance there is also 
an inscription in praise of the founder. Port Manoel 
which still bears marks of the several bombardments 
to which it was subjected by the combined English 
and Maltese forces between 1798 and 1800 was for- 
merly used as a Lazaretto, and enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being the best and the most confortable 
in the Mediterranean. 

During the winter of 1856, an Italian Legion 
stationed in this fort, broke out into mutiny. The 
Bridge connecting the island with the mainland was 
at once secured, and H. M. S. Hannibal took up 
her station abreast of the fort, whereupon the mu- 
tineers submitted, were disarmed, deprived of their 
uniforms, disbanded, and left to 'shift for themselves. 
Boat fare to Fort Manoel Hi. in company with others 

id. 

Close to Fort Manoel are the buildings of the Laz- 
zaretto erected under the rule pf the Grand Master 
Lascaris, the Cathedral receiving lands at Fid- . 
deni in exchange for the island. Quarantine regu- 
lations were formerly very striot, and each Grand 
Master was bound by oath not to interfere with 
them. M. Houel, writing in 1687 gives a very gra- 
phic description of the precautions taken. The crew 



159 

and passengers of a ship were shut up in a room 
in which a qnantity of straw was burnt, together with 
14oz. of aromatic herbs. Those in quarantine were 
put upon oath as to their state of health both before 
and since their arrival in Malta: the health officers 
swore that they had faithfully discharged their duty: 
and if any one was detected in a falsehood he was 
hanged at once. The Lazaretto has been but little 
used of late and was occupied in 1878 by some of 
the officers and men belonging to the Indian Con- 
tingent, a portion of which was encamped near the La- 
zaretto. 

The rocky headland of Tasbiesch with its coal 
stores and numerous coal barges belonging to the 
P. and 0. and to the Telegraph Companies projects 
into the* harbour. The steamers of these Companies 
lie off this point. Fare for passengers between a P. 
and 0. steamer and the Marsamuscetto Steps Is. per 
boat. Fare for others, going on board, 3d. The harbour 
here divides into two arms. The one to the right 
between Tasbiesch and the Public Baths built during 
the administration of Sir Alexander J. Ball, (4d. per 
hour) is called Misida Creek. This was formerly an 
unhealthy neighbourhood, but Sir A. Ball did much 
to improve it by the construction of a stone quay 
and wide road. There are some good houses at 
Misida which has a population of 2000. Misida is 
variously interpreted to mean "the valley of fishing" 
or "the fishers" or "The Mother of O f ur Lord." This 
latter title is derived from a tradition that the church 
dedicated to the B. V. Mary was erected in gra- 
titude for deliverance from a Turkish invasion. This 
church is first mentioned in 1575, and was originally 
a rock-hewn crypt. It was rebuilt about 1640, en- 



160 

larged in 1670, and again enlarged between 1856 
and 1859 at a cost of £250. 

In the Misida Creek is situated the Hydraulic 
Dock, which was opened by Admiral Lord Clarence 
Paget on Jan. 23rd 1873. Ships of 3000 tons can 
have either hull or machinery repaired. * H. M. S. 
Cruiser was the first vessel lifted upon the pontoon. 
This dock is a great convenience to ship owners, is 
in constant requisition, and employs numerous work- 
men. At the head of the creek the straight road 
leads to the village of Birchircara two miles distant. 
The branch to the right ascends a slope> and pass- 
ing Holy Trinity Church, Sliema, turns off to St. 
Julians and Pembroke Camp whilst the road which 
skirts the shore of the promontory of Tasbiesch 
is the route for Sliema landing place. 

Returning to the Public Baths, and turning to 
the right we are in the suburb of Pieta, named 
from the church which is built on the site of a 
cemetery wherein many victims to the plague are 
interred, and which is dedicated to Our Lady of 
Sorrow or of Piety. Built in 1590 it is the most 
ancient within the district of Floriana. Its festival 
is on Sept. 17th. Mustapha Pasha resided at Pieta, 
and organized the Slaves Conspiracy in 1749. An- 
nual races are held on the Pieta road on August 
16th, which were instituted after a visitation of the 
plague. 

A lane on* the right leads from the head of 
the harbour to the Military Cemetery wherein sleeps 
in peace many a brave soldier, together with * sol- 
diers' wives and little children. To the right of the 
main road which here ascends a hill is the pretty 
Ta Braxia Cemetery, wherein rest many English 



161 

residents and visitors, together with others who have 
breathed their last in Malta. It is under the manage- 
ment of a Committee. All information can be ob- 
tained from Mr. Martin at the Garrison Library. 
The Jewish Cemetery, opened on January 19th 1836 
through the exertions of Sig. Jacob Abeasis is close 
by. We re-enter Porte des Bombes, and return to 
Valletta. 



n 



162 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Mai^sa and Eurmola. 

Out of Porte des Bombes. — Porto Nuovo.— The Marsa, 
and the Race Course. — Corradino, its Fortifications, and Pri- 
sons. — The French Creek and the Naval Canteen. — Burmola, 
its Fortifications, and Gates. — The Cotonera Hospital. — Chur- 
ches and Convents. — The Dockyard and Marina. 

LEAVING Floriana by the Porte des Bombes, 
we reach a place where the road forks. The right 
hand branch goes to Pieta, Misida, Sliema, and St. 
Julians, and that in the centre to the Ta Braxia 
Cemetery, whilst our road to the Marsa lies straight 
before us. On the left are the fortifications of Flo- 
riana, and we soon reach another division of the 
road. To the right the San Giuseppe Road goes 
to Citta Vecchia and the interior of the islaud. Be- 
tween the roads is a cemetery in which the poorer 
classes were interred from 1813 until just before 
the opening of the Addolorata Cemetery. Soldiers also 
lie here. No less than 15,000 are interred at this 
spot. We remark a monument to the men, women, 
and children of the 44th Regt who died in Malta 
between 1848,, and 1851. 

We incline to the left, and see below us numerous 
barges laden with " black diamonds " for the use 
and benefit of steamers. Two trees upon a slope 
mark the site of the ancient burial place of galley 
slaves and other Mahometans, which was granted 



163 

by the knights in 1674. The walls were pulled 
down a few years since, and the human remains trans- 
ferred to the new Mahometan cemetery. 

For some distance we have on the left Porto 
Nuovo or the New Harbour. The Romans embank- 
ed this portion of the harbour, and at a later 
period basins were constructed, but becoming silted 
up, an extensive marsh was formed. This whole 
neighbourhood, called the Marsa or port was most 
unhealthy, but about twenty years ago the upper 
part of the harbour was extended and deepened. 
Coal stores, quays and all possible conveniences for 
shipping are found here, including a telegraph 
office (p. 56). 

On our right is the expanse of the Marsa, on 
whi^h tbe Turkish army was encamped during the 
Great Siejje. One day the garrison of Citta Vec- 
chia attacked the camp, slaying all the sick and 
wounded in hospital ! Chivalrous times, truly ! 

The Government Laundry is on the right, and the 
Steam Flour Mills and Contractors' Cattle Store and 
Depot on the left. We note the Mahometan Cem- 
etery, with its domes and minarets, and on a 
hillside the graceful spire of the Gothic Church of 
the Addolorata Cemetery. This Cemetery is con- 
structed in terraces, connected by flights of steps. 
It is laid out on the plan of the Highgate Ceme- 
tery near Loudon, was consecrated in November 
1869, aud is supplied with water from the aqueduct 
which passes down the road behind. The inhabi- 
tants of the four cities of Valletta, Vittoriosa, Cos- 
picua, and Senglea, as well as Floriana are buried 
here. . More than 1500 interments take place annually. 
The cemetery is well worth a visit. The Marsa is 



161 

the largest and most level plain in Malta. It collects 
the water from the high grounds, and is itself drained 
by a canal. The Malta Jockey Club holds two annual 
meetings here. The race course near which is a well 
cultivated market garden celebrated for its artichokes 
is a favourite riding ground. Season tickets 12* 6d. 
Quarterly tickets 5s. The Grand Stand is on the 
N. side of the oval course, which is about one mile 
and three quarters in circumference. The soil of 
the Marsa is deep and well watered. Beyond the 
flour mills is the Casal or village of Luca and on 
the right is Casal Curmi. 

On the eastern side of the Grand Harbour are 
the heights of Corradino. This name means a pro- 
montory. The Phoenicians erected a temple here, 
which was unfortunately destroyed a few y£ars since 
by the Royal Engineers, during the construction of 
some new works. A few traces may still be seen 
close to the moat. These heights on which were 
situated the haras or horse breeding establishments 
and the game-preserves of the Grand Masters, were 
fortified a few years since, and oonneoted with the 
Cotonera Lines, of which we must say a few words. 
They were designed by Count Valperga, Chief En- 
gineer to the Duke of Savoy in 1670 at the re- 
quest of the Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner, en- 
closing the whole of the Margarita heights, and 
connecting with the fortifications of Senglea and 
Vittoriosa. The first stone was laid with much cere- 
mony in the Bastion of St. Nicholas on August 28th, 
1670. The works were intended to afford a refuge 
for the population and their cattle in the event of 
a siege, and a poet, wishing to be complimentary, 
compared the Grand Master to Noah, since he had 



165 

provided shelter for all the animals. The Com- 
mander Blondel designed nine gates, only three of which 
have ever been used. After ten years labour and 
ian enormous outlay, the lines were left unfinished, 
and it was not until 1716 that they were proceed- 
ed with and rendered defensible. Their extent aud 
magnitude excite the astonishment of even the most 
casual observer. 

On the Corradino heights are situated the Military 
and Civil Prisons, the former of which has acco- 
modation for 116 and the latter for 250 prisoners, 
also large water tanks for shipping, and a powder 
magazine. Not far from the Military Prison are 
the remains of a Maltese battery, constructed dur- 
ing the siege of 1798-1800, near to which is a 
monument to Capt. Spencer of H» M. S. Mada- 
gascar who is buried on St. Andrew's Bastion, Val- 
letta. A flight of steps leads down to the water 
from this monument, and off this point men of war 
are allowed to ride out their quarantine. The Turks 
erected batteries on these heights during the Great 
Siege of 1565. 

Near at hand at the waters edge is the Naval 
Canteen, which provides refreshment combined with 
amusement both for mind and body, A Library, 
racquet courts, reading room and theatre, are amongst 
the attractions of this deservedly popular institution. 
On the shores of the French Creek or Man of 
War Harbour are the Naval Barracks in which a 
ship's company is now and again quartered, the 
Admiralty coal stores, and the pumping station for 
the new drainage works. A spring called Ghain 
Duieli or "the spring of vines" is very useful for 
washing purposes. Much ship building was formerly 



166 

carried on here ia private yards, in which the 
Russian squadron was refitted after the battle of 
Navarino in 1827. 

At the head of this creek is populous Burmo- 
la, which means either "the well of the Lord" or 
"the lofty place." It also received the name of 
Cospicua from the Grand Master Zondadari in 1721, 
on account of its massive fortifications, which con- 
nect with those of Vittoriosa and Senglea, and of 
which the first stone was laid on December 30th 
1635. They were designed by P. Fr. Vincenzo Ma- 
culano da Firenzuola, a Dominican monk, who was 
one of the Pope's Engineers. The Grand Masters 
Perellos in 1716, and Zondadari in 1721 carried 
on the work which was completed by Ma^noel de 
Vilhena in 1736. 

The gates are five in number, viz, the Upper 
and Lower Burmola Gates close to the Somerset 
Dock under the walls of Fort St. Michael, St. 
Helena Gate from the Old Market, one on the other 
side called the Rock Gate, and the Santa Marga- 
rita Gate. The Gates of the Cotonera Lines are 
those of St. Paul, St. John, St. Nicholas, St Clement, 
or Polverista, Notre Dame, St. James, Zabbar, St. 
Louis, and S. Salvatore only three of which are open, 
viz., St. Clement's or Polverista which gives access to 
the Casals of Zeitun, Tarxien, &c. Also St. Helena 
Gate above which is an inscription, and within which 
proceeding upwards we reach a large parade ground 
called St. Clement's Retrenchment which commands 
the entrances from the Polverista and Zabbar Gates 
by means of long curtains. Below are casemated 
batteries, and communications with Verdala Barracks. 



167 

The third open gate is that of Zabbar, a lofty structure 
visible, from afar, upon which is a bust of the 
Grand. Master Nicholas Cotoner, with a most eu- 
logistic inscription An infantry detachment is sta- 
tioned at this gate/ and close by is the Military 
Hospital for the Cottonera District. Commenced in 
November 1870, it was not completed until July 
1873. The building contains 4 large wards, each 
of which can accomodate 32 patients. Also 4 small 
wards for serious cases, and on the ground floor 
a ward for prisoners, and another for opthalmic cases. 
The ventilation is perfect, and nothing is forgotten 
that can conduce to the comfort of the sick soldier. 
Officers' wards have lately been opened. There is 
a very extensive view from the terrace, embracing a 
wide expanse of sea, and nearly half the island. 

Between the Zabbar and Book Gates is a hollow, 
in which is a garden. Here many victims of the 
plague are interred. There is a burial ground just 
outside the Sock Gate, and another close under 
the Gotonera Lines. 

The southern extremity of Burmola is protected 
by Port St. Francesco di Paola, which is garri- 
soned by English infantry. The Verdala Barracks 
are situated on the highest part of the city. 

Burmola is partly low lying and partly on a slope. 
It is thickly populated, has narrow, steep, irregular 
streets, and is chiefly inhabited by artisans. On 
October 10th, 1869 the lower porti<jn was flooded, 
and it was necessary to break down the Dockyard 
Gates to provide an outlet for the water. A tun- 
nel has since been cut in the rock to prevent any 
similar disaster in future. 



168 

Though not requiring detailed description Bar- 
xnola will repay a visit as it is much more Maltese 
in character than cosmopolitan Valletta. In 1575 
the inhabitants numbered 1200, bat the present popu- 
lation is about 13,000. The parish church dedicated 
to Our Lady of Succour or della Ooncezione was 
commenced in 1587, and rebuilt in 1637: various 
additions were made until 1690. It was consecrated 
by Mons Alpheran de Bussan, on July 26th 1732. 

The principal picture is by P. P. Caruana, and in 
a side chapel is a picture of Our Lady of Grace 
by the Cav. Favray. There are numerous pictures 
and carvings by various artists. The Oratory of the 
Crucifixion, consecrated by Mons. Labini in 1793, 
adjoins the church. St. Paul's Church was first 
built in 1590. The present building was erected on 
the site of the old one in 1741, and the principal 
picture representing the Conversion of St. Paul is 
by Rocco Buhagiar. This church is in Strada San 
Paolo. 

The Church of St. John the Almsgiver out- 
side St. Helena Gate was pulled down in 1680 to 
make room for the Cotonera Lines, and was rebuilt 
on its present site in 1682 at the expense of Fra 
Pietro Viany. 

The Church of San Francesco di Paolo is sit- 
uated on the Corradino quay. It was built in 1747 
together with an adjoining villa by the Bailiff Frances- 
co de Sousa, thg nephew of the Grand Master Manoel. 

At the foot of Santa Margarita Hill are the 
Carmelite Church and Convent. The convent was 
founded in 1625, and in 1681, an Oratory for pious 
knights was added, the Grand Master Carafa con- 
tributing £50. The church consists of a nave with 



169 

six side chapels, and waa consecrated in 1787. The 
principal picture, representing the Coronation of Santa 
Teresa- is by Fra Luca Gamier. The picture in 
the Oratory of the Convent was left unfinished by 
Mattia Preti at his death. 

On the hill of Santa Margarita just outside 
the entrance of Vittoriosa are the nunnery and church 
of the same name. This, the last nunnery esta- 
blished in Malta, was founded in 1726, and com- 
pleted in 1730 by the Grand Master Manoel de 
Vilhena. The nuns belong to the Order of Santa 
Teresa. The church was consecrated in 1787 and 
the principal picture representing St, James is by 
Francesco Zahra. 

The Conservatorio of San Giuseppe in Strada 
San Giorgio receives and educates poor girls. The 
old building is now used as the Primary Schools 
of Burmola. The present building was erected in 
1810. The adjacent church of San Giuseppe has 
over the door the arms of the Bishops Labini and Mat- 
tei. The principal picture is by Sebastiano Conca. 

On the hill of Santa Margarita is a School 
Chapel with accomodation for 500 persons, which 
is used as a Garrison Church, in which the Cha- 
plains to the Forces officiate. 

Burmola is intersected by the Port of the Galleys, 
now called Dockyard Creek, at the head of which 
was the old market of Burmola the site of which 
is now converted into spacious dqpks. Two new 
markets have been built close by. 

The old Arsenal for the Galleys was constructed 
between 1776 and 1783 at a cost of £6,098, storehouses 
costing in addition £715. The Order spent yearly 
upon its navy £47,494. The Galleys, originally six 



170 

or seven iu number, were afterwards reduced to four. 
The seamen and galley-slaves were clad in French 
cloth, and were under the command of the- Con- 
gregation of the Galleys. A proveditore superin- 
tended the rigging, and the Commandant of the 
Arsenal the refitting of the galleys. 

The building of a galley cost £4,272. She had 
26 oars on either side, with five men to each, and 
was 166 ft. long with 26ft 8 J in beam, 116ft. 6 in. 
being decked. When not in use the galleys were 
drawn on shore, and placed under covered arches, 
some of which stood on the site of the Naval 
Bakery, and others within the present Dockyard. 
Three ships of the line were first built in 1704, 
Their number was afterwards increased to four, but 
the fleet was eventually reduced to one sixty-gun 
ship and three frigates. The latter cost £11,834 
each, and two men of war were sold in 1781 for 
£17,722. Cleansing the Port cost £468 per annum. 

Fruitless efforts to construct a dock were made 
in 1815, but in 1841 operations were again com- 
menced, arid the first pile was driven in the spring of 
1843 under the superintendence of Rear Admiral 
Sir George Lewis. 

The first stone was laid on May 1st. 1843, 
at a depth of 43ft. 6 in. below sea-level, and the 
first stone of the Dockyard was laid by Sir Patrick 
Stuart, then Governor of Malta on Coronation Day, 
1844. The fir»t vessel docked was the Antelope, on 
Saturday, September 5th, 1848. There are now two 
docks in the Dockyard Creek, in which three ships 
were last year placed at once. Their whole length 
is 525 ft, with nearly 30 feet of water on the sjjl, 
and they can be pumped dry in about six hours. 



171 

The Dockyard possesses the usual ranges of 
store-houses and workshops, and also a chapel, which 
Admiral Inglefield did much to improve. The Dock- 
yard Chaplain officiates and services are amounted 
in the local papers. 

A tunnel leads to the Somerset Dock, which can 
receive the largest ironclads. It was designed by 
Colonel Clarke, R. E., Admiralty Director of Works, 
constructed by C. Andrews Esq., C. E, and opened 
in 1870 by the Duke of Somerset then First Lord 
of the Admiralty, under the superintendence of Rear 
Admiral Sir Astley Cooper Key. Length 468 feet, 
at bottom 427 ft. Breadth 104 ft. Depth of water 
on sill 34 ft. It holds 7,000,000 gallons of water, 
and can, be pumped dry in four hours. 

The offices of the Admiral Superintendent and 
of the principal officers of the Dockyard are situated in 
one of the bastions of Fort St. Michael upon the 
top of which are the Masting Shears. Passing the 
Workmen's Dining Hall we leave the Yard and find 
ourselves on the Anchor Wharf, so called because 
it was formerly covered with anchors, ranges of 
chain cables of every possible size, moorings &c. 
This wharf was also called La Sirena from the 
figure of a Siren carved in the rock within a small cave. 

From hence boats cross to the St. Lorenzo Steps 
in Vittoriosa on the opposite side of the creek. 
Fare id. On the site of the ancient dwelling of 
the Captains of the Galleys a row of handsome houses 
has been erected called Dockyard Terrace, which 
are occupied by various principal officers of the 
Dockyard. 

• The Marina is before us, covered with boats 
and picturesque, but lined with too many grog 



172 



• - *. 



shops. Some of the smaller ships of war are gen- 
erally moored in the Dockyard Creek. We monnt 
a long flight of steps on the left, and speedily 
reach the principal street of Senglea. 



krf*. 



173 



CHAPTER IX, 



Sbnglba, 

VlTTORIOSA, AND FoRT RlCASOLI. 

Origin of Senglea, — Churches 'and Convents,— H. [M* 
S. Hibernia, Port St, Angelo, and the Temple of Juno.— 
The Victualling Yard, Slave Prison, and Naval Bakery. — 
The Old Palace and Hospital. — Churches and Convents. — 
San Lorenzo. — Soldier's Institute. — Column of Victory. — 
Inquisitor's and Bishop's Palaces. — La Vallette's Obser- 
vatory.— Salvadore Gate, and Calcara Bay. — Naval Cemetery 
and Hos$tal. — Qinella Bay, and Fort Rioasoli, 

THE site of Citti Senglea was formerly called "St, 
Julian's Hill" from an ancient chapel erected early 
in the 14th century, It was also styled "Windmill 
Hill" from some mill of early date. Projecting 
as it does into the Great Harbour it bore in addi- 
tion the name of Chersoneso or peninsula. The 
Grand Masters bad a menagerie here. It was for- 
tified by the Grand Master d' Omedes between 
)£41 and 1552, and the guns of the principal fort 
having been mounted on May 8th. 1552, the day 
of the Apparition of St. Michael, the standard of 
the Order was hoisted upon it, an4 it was named 
fit. Michael. How nearly both it and Senglea were 
oaptured during the Great Siege of 1565, and how 
gallantly they were defended, let Porter, Seddall, 
and Townsend tell. Fort St. Michael commands 
the entrance into the town, and also the harbours 



174 

on either side, and hag quarters for about 300 men. 
The Masting Shears have been erected upon one 
of its bastions. Senglea was considerably strength- 
ened by the Grand Master Claude de la Sengle, 
who also encouraged the erection of numerous 
buildings. 

After the Great Siege it received the proud 
title of Invitta or "the Invincible," and its inhab- 
itants were exempted from the payment of certain 
taxes. It is also called "St. Michael's Island" or 
briefly Isola, from its principal fortification. The 
works were strengthened in 1716, and in subse- 
quent years. 

The streets of Senglea contain many good houses, 
and much attention has of late been paid to san- 
itary measures. * 

In the principal street is a marble statue by 
Vincenzo Dimech, erected in gratitude for the ex- 
emption of Senglea from the plague in 18 13, when 
6000 persons perished. 

The Collegiate and Parochial church in Str. 
Vittoria had its origin in the before mentioned 
Chapel of St. Julian. It was made parocchial in 
1531, and rebuilt about 1650. It is of Doric ar- 
chitecture and consists of a choir, nave, and several 
side chapels. Length 142 ft., breath 46 fb., 6 in., 
breadth of nave 31 ft., The church was consecrated 
in 1743 and made Collegiate in .1785. 

Notice the carved seats in the choir made in 
1730, and two* statues of the B. V. M. by G era da 
and Bonnici. The principal picture, representing 
the Nativity of the B. V. M. was painted by Tom- 
maso Madiona in 1850. There is also a picture of 
Santa Caterina by Erardi. A marble tablet records 



175 

the exemption from certain taxes of the people of 
Senglea after the Great Siege of 1565. Adjoining 
the church are two Oratories, and the Church of 
the Purification. The Oratory and Church of the 
Congregation of San Filippo Neri overlook the Great 
Harbour. The Oratory was completed in 1695, and 
rebuilt and enlarged in 1744. It possesses a good 
library bequeathed by Father S. Cassar in 1779. 
The present church was erected in 1662. The high altar 
was made in 1603 and the principal picture is by Er- 
ardi. Sfc.Julian was formerly the patron saint of Senglea. 
The present church in Str. San Giuliano is the 
third built upon this site since 1311. It was fii- 
nished in 1711. The Hospital of St. Anna is on 
the Marina of Senglea. It was founded by two wealthy 
Maltese • Nicola Dingli and Maria Cornelia [in 1794. 
It is intended for the reception of female conva- 
lescents belonging to Senglea and Casal Siggieui. 
This hospital, the chapel of which is dedicated to 
Sant' Anna, was blessed in 1817. From hence we 
take boat and cross the Dockyard Creek to Fort 
St. Angelo in Vittoriosa, passing close to H. M. 
S. Hibernia, which does duty as receiving ship and 
on board which the crews of ships of war under 
repair are berthed. She is almost stationary now, 
only shifting her berth during the summer months 
from below Fort St. Angelo to the centre of the 
Dockyard Creek. Our idea in Malta of the Greek 
Kalends is "When the Hibernia goes to sea !"'She 
has however been and still is most useful. The 
Hibernia fires a gun daily at sunrise, also at 8. 0. 
p. m. in winter, and at 9. 0. p. m. in summer. 
On the point below Fort St. Angelo may still be 
seen some links of the chain which, supported by 



176 

pieces of timber and empty wine casks, was used 
during the Great Siege to close this creek then 
called the Port of the Galleys. 

Fort St. Angelo, formerly styled "the Castle 
on the Rock" was built according to Marmol by 
the Arabs in the year 828, but 973 is a more 
probable date. It was under the Spanish monarch 
the hereditary governorship of the Nava family and on 
the arrival of the Knights, Alvarez de Nava trans - 
ferred the castle to them in consideration of an 
annual pension. The Commander Peter Piton, at 
the head of a company of foot first took possession. 
Its armament consisted of one small cannon, two 
falcons or three- pounders, and a few iron mortars. 

U Isle Adam stengthened it and in 1533 the 
Grand Prior of Toulouse added a bastion * on the 
side towards Calcara Bay, then called the English 
harbour. In 1541 the Grand Master John d'Omedes 
by the advice of Caramolin the Emperor's chief 
engineer erected a Cavalier or elevated work, "that 
they might see what passed in the port of Mar- 
samuscetto." A bastion still bears the name of Ome- 
des. La Vallette erected a battery on the point 
below the fort almost on a level with the water, 
which did good service during the siege. In 1690 
Don Carlos de Grunemberg the. King of Spain's 
Engineer constructed "three great batteries which 
hinder the coming into the harbour." St. Angelo 
was the state prison of the Order, and corresponds 
to our Englisn Tower of London. This fort, in 
common with the other fortifications of Malta, can- 
not be visited without an order from the military 
authorities. The arms of Naples and Sicily may 
still be traced upon a defaced escutcheon above 
an entrance to the Officers' Quarters. At the door 



177 

of the Commandant's Quarters are some. interesting 
Norman capitals and carvings, and! within 'are the 
•arms of several Governors of the Castle . : between 
1714 and 179.2. A Norman arch has been built 
up, and in the garden are the arms of 1/ Isle Adam 
with the dates 1531 and 1538. A time gun is 
fired daily at noon, and at sunset. Beneath the 
bastion on which it is placed is an ancient slave 
prison. There are two chapels in the fort. The 
lower one dedicated to the B. V. M. is said to 
date from 1090, add withu? it the ancient confra- 
ternity of Bombardiers used to .worship. The chap* 
lain of the fort was independent of the . parish 
priest of Vittoriosa. The upper xthapel was built by 
the Nava, family, who . were ^hereditary governors of 
the castle, and is dedicated :to Saht' Anna. The 
Grand Master L'Isle Adam rebuilt it in 1531, and 
was buried in it in 1534. Notice his monument. 
•His remains together with those of succeeding Grand 
Masters were transferred to St. John's Church in 
1519. The building is now used as a Chapel-school 
and its roof is supported by a column of red gra- 
nite, (probably Egyptian) which is .said to .have 
originally formed part of Solomon's temple, and to 
have been brought hither from Rhodes. It seems 
more probable, however, that it is a relic of the 
temple of Juno which stood close by. .. Beneath four 
shady trees is the grave of those who fell in the 
siege of 1565 and of the victims of the plague of 
1676. 

Quitting Fort St. Angelo we cross the bridge 
which spans the moat. Here again we are on classic 
ground, for this was the site of the celebrated 
temple of Jano (see p.p. 15, 18,). We see on the 

12 



178 

left the R. E. workshops, erected by the Giurati 
or Magistrates in 1665 as one of the granaries of 
the University of Supplies, in front of which are 
several subterranean receptacles for grain. This 
was the scene of Midshipman Easy's triangular duel. 
A covered portico extends along the adjoining quay 
on which are the official residences of the Admiral 
Superintendent, the Naval Storekeeper, and the Clerk 
in charge of the Victualling Yard, which were form- 
erly occupied by the Captain General of the two 
squadrons of the Order, his Lieutenant, the Cap- 
tain of the Galleys, and as the Court House of the 
Giurati. A long range of storehouses is filled with 
supplies for the Mediterranean Fleet, which is largely 
dependent upon the Malta Victualling Yard. 

Immediately in rear is the large galley-slave 
prison cut out of the solid rock, above which is a 
ruinous building, now a carpenter's shop, which was 
formerly used for the same purpose. Permission to 
visit these ancient and curious prisons must be 
obtained from the Admiral Superintendent. 

A short walk along the quay brings us to the 
Naval Bakery, on the site of which formerly stood 
three large arches beneath which the galleys were 
drawn up for repairs and refitting. The Bakery 
has fifteen ovens, of which only two are generally 
used, und which bake about 6,200 lbs of biscuit 
per diem. This quantity could of course be largely 
increased. Each biscuit is baked in about 25 min- 
utes. The machinery is driven by steam powfer, 
and the rotary oven bakes 4,500 lbs of biscuit in 
about eight hours. 

The old "Borgo del Castello," or " Towa of 
the Castle" received the proud title of "Citta Vit- 



179 

toriosa" or the Victorious City," together with the 
escutcheon of an armed hand grasping a drawn 
sword between two branches of palm and olive on 
a red ground, after the defeat of the Turks in 
1565. The streets are narrow and uneven. Many 
old houses are to be seen here and there bearing 
traces of former magnificence. For an account of 
its fortifications and of its gallant defence in 1565 
the reader is referred to "A History of the Fortress 
of Malta," and " Malta and its Knights," by Lieut. 
Col. Porter R. B. 

The Bastion of Castile which was the scene of 
such fierce contention overlooks Calcara Bay. Being 
encircled by the Cofonera Lines the three Cities 
of Vittoriosa, Senglea, and Cospicua or Burmola are 
sometimes styled Citta Cotonera. In Strada Antico 
Palazzo del Goveraatore formerly stood the 'old Gov* 
ernor's Palace which was adorned with stone me* 
dallion portraits of the Emperors. These .were un- 
fortunately destroyed when the old building was 
demolished. a few yearfe since. The old entrance 
still exists at No. 102. 

In Strada Scolastica are the Nunnery >and Church 
of the same nauue. This building erected in 1533 
was formerly the. Knights' Hospital. Above a hand- 
some Lombard gateway are two defaced escutcheons 
with pomegranates the emblem of Granada at. the 
corners. For this and many another interesting he- 
raldic detail in Valletta and the Thr%a Cities .lam 
indebted to the Revet W. K. B« Bedford author of 
the "Blazon of Episbojp&gy," 

The Nunnery of Santa Scolastica was founded 
at Citta Vecchia by Bishop Valguarnera, under, the 
rule of St. Benedict in 1496. The nuns were trans- 



180 

f erred to Vittoriosa in 1608 by Bishop Gargallo, 
in spite, of. much popular opposition, and removed 
to their present hotoe in 165z. * The church was 
rebuilt in 1679, blesbed in 'ltf80, and • consecrated in 
1787* The principal 'picture is* by Mattia Preti. 

The Churdh of S. Filippo tteri dedicated to the 
IB. V. of the Aogels,. originated in the 15th century. 
tTh'e present structure was bonseorated in 1788. A 
small pioture of S. Girbl&mo Pendente is by Mat- 
tia Preti. An oratory adjoins th'e ohurch. (Strada 
S. Filippo.) 

The Church rind Convent * of Carmine near the 
Naval Bakery were built <at the expense of the 
erews of the .galleys In 1611. The convent was 
suppressed in 1652. This church was much fre- 
quented by the officers and crews of the galleys, 
and in 1670 Francesco Oa*afia, general of the Gal- 
leys presented the pioture of S. Francesco Ji Paola, 
The church of the SSmaTrinita behind the victual- 
ting Yard was erected in 1784 by Lucrezia Gauci 
'Falzon whose portrait may be seen there. 

The Dominican Monastery was founded in 1518. 
The church in Strada Porta Maggiore, is cplled the 
Annuneriafca. It was rebuilt in 1659, contains an 
ancient statue which was formerly preserved at 
Fort St. Angelo, end has a picture of St. Peter 
by Mattia Preti. The Capuchin Monastery was 
completed 1 in 1743. The church was consecrated in 
1747. The principal picture representing the Mar- 
tyrdom of Santa Barbara Is by A. Massucci. The 
Monastery possesses a portrait of the Grand Mas- 
ter Mahoel. 

' ■ San Lorenzo by 'the sea" is the principal ohurch 
-and should be visited. The parish dutes ftom 1090, 



181 

and on th€ arrival of the Order in 1530 S. Lorenzo 
became the Conventual Church. The present build- 
ing was commenced in 1631 and consecrated in 
1723. The principal . picture .k a master* piece by 
Mattia Preti, and there are some old Byzantine pic- 
tures in the' sacristy. . Some ancient vestments from 
Rhodes are ^ery interesting., > also the chasuble' of- 
Pope Alexander V1L when Inquisitor of Malta, 
The silver crosses, dhalioe, censer, &b. brought from 
Rhodes can be seen on application to the ' sacristan* 
Adjoining- thai dhuroK . is the Oratory of San- 
Giuseppe, i or thejChureh of "Santa Maria dei Greet/'* 
so called from* having been assigned to the Greeks- 
who accompanied the Knights from Rhodes. Hers 
are preserved the hat and. sword worn by La Val-i 
lette? on # the day .of. hi&' triumph over the Tarks; 
The Oratory of a the. Crucifixion stands upon; a. por* 
tion -of t)he cemetery wherein: those, slain . in 156a 
are interred; j This ! cemetery covers: the whole paved 
slope to' thfc north; o£ : thd chuaich. . i o '. 
-- Clbse to San L6renzo are the San* Lorenzo 
steps ' from which . w© may cross the Dockyard Creek 
to Senglba, .(Fare ^d) or to Valletta (Fare 3d. or 
in company with other passengers id.) : *• 

• To the -.righty.i and -. in the . immediate! neigh-* 
bourhoed <6tf these 'steps Is the* " Soldiers' ;& -fill- 
ers' Institute/' which is a centre of good and us?fal 
work^' Subscriptions will be gladly. received by the 
Bewl> G: ••:W*»ly> -The rManBe, 205, Stoada.FarnLi 
Reikikiingl to the . .* church •« of San Laroaza, aBd 
turning to the right -we reach the Piaaza Vitto'n 
ridsa, in yrhieli* stands a monument erected in: 1705 
an<J restored in 1760; su»m6unted . by a. figure of 
Victory in memory of the, repulse of -the Turks in 



182 

1565. This monument is now again under restora- 
tion. On the former centre of the square stands 
a tower the clock in which is said to have been 
brought from Rhodes. One of the bells was cast 
in 1513. 

Leaving Piazza Vittoriosa by Strada della Por- 
ta Maggiore we see on the left a plain massive 
building at the door of which a sentry is posted. 
This is the old Inquisitor's Palace, and is now oc- 
cupied by the officers of the regiment stationed in Vit* 
toriosa and at Fort St. Michael in Senglea. Two 
inscriptions remain, which refer to the Popes Al- 
exander VII. and Innocent VII. who were both 
former Inquisitors of Malta. Many of the dungeons 
have been walled up, but some years ago workmen 
whilst excavating a wine cellar discovered* a rack. 
The Inquisition was first introduced into Malta in 
August 1574, in order to settle certain disputes be- 
tween the Bishop of Malta and the Grand Master. 
In 1657 the Inquisitor Odi interfered to hinder, if 
possible, the election of De Bedin as Grand Mas- 
ter, and in 1711 the Inquisitor Delci insolently de- 
manded that the carriage of the Grand Master 
should stop on meeting his, and that the hospital 
of the Order should be under his jurisdiction. The 
Pope, however disallowed these lofty claims. The 
Inquisitors used to grant patents the holders of which 
exempt from all obedience except to the Inquisition. 
The French suppressed this tribunal, and confiscated 
its property. The Dominican Church and Convent 
are on the right side of the street. 

In the Strada del Vescovo or " Bishop's Street" 
is the old Bishop's Palace, built by Bishop {ta* 
belles in 1542. When Bishop Oagliares not without 



183 

much opposition from the Grand Master removed 
the episcopal residence to Valletta in 1622, the 
Bishop's prisons remained here. The building has 
been used as a government school since 1872. The 
arms of La Vallette are affixed to a house which 
faces the Palace, and at the end of the street are 
the Vittoriosa Barracks, which were formerly an 
armoury, and afterwards a hospital. Close by is a 
cavalier or elevated work, which is said to have 
been La Valletta's post of observation daring the 
Sreat Siege. Returning to the main street and 
passing beneath St. John's Cavalier, we leave the 
ancient Borgo by the main gate above which is a 
defaced inscription, to the effect that Malnoel de 
Vilhena restored and strengthened the fortifications 
in 172 7* aud the text " Thou hast covered my head 
in the day of battle." The outer works have upon 
them the dates 1722 and 1723, having been taken 
in hand in 1716, by Mons. de Tign4 a French 
engineer. Much valuable information concerning the 
Borgo has been most kindly given by the Bevd. 
Canon Patiniott, Officiating Chaplain to the Forces. 
We have now reached the hill of Margarita, 
(Chapter viii.) and turning to the left through 
the gate of the same name we cross a large open space. 
On our right are the Zabbar Gate and the Cotonera 
Hospital whilst close by is a hollow with gardens. 
This was also a plague burial ground. On the left 
are the San Salvador Barracks and we pass through 
the gate, of the same name. The fortifications on 
this height which commands Vittoriosa were con- 
structed by the Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena 
in 1724. A path to the right leads to the Ca- 
pilchin Convent, 



18* 

Descending' a; slope we reach the head of Cal- 
cara Bay,, named' from some ancient lime»ktln. Gas 
works and a boat-slip may be noted; Turning to 
the left \ we see on onr right hand the entrance 
to ' £he -old Jewish Cemetery, which dates' from 1<784»- 
A narrow lane leads up the hilt past the "Milking 
Gkxw" grogshop, and on reaching some cross roads 
we turn to the left. The Naval Cemetery, which" 
is kept :in admirable order y iff on oar. right. Ad- 
mission by application to thd Deputy Inspector Gen-* 
6rat at Bighi. Hospital. Want of space forbids the 
insertion of several quaint and touching epitaphs.; 

We are at the entrance of ttie Royal Naval 
Hospital, To the right is the : ancient church of S. 
Salvador. Destroyed during tihe- siege of 1565, it 
was rebuilt by La Valletta, and afterwards m "16&1 
by Prior Giovanni Biohi, from whom the whole pro- 
montory on which {he hospital stands derives thef 
name of Bighi. ■ Prior. Biohi built a country house 
here, died of the plague in 46ftJ, and 1 is btorieii in 
the chiwch. Long .before his day the Phoenicians 
knew ibis -headland,, as inscription^ fotnd here which 
are upw in the British Museum clearly prove; 

Prior Bichi's home afterwards* 'belonged to. the 
Oavailier Frisari, but was nearly 'destroyed during 
the siege of 1798-80. -i. In v 183© it' was Converted' 
into this noble institution^ King William the- Fourth 
was greatly interested 1 in the matte*; and the works 
were under the superintendence ©f; Admiral Sir* Pal* 
teney Malcolm?. There • -are residences for tbfr med- 
ical officers «n(J. others 'cotraee<ted< r wiib fihie hospi- 
tal. The grdtmds' are Hasiefully laid >OAt ind acco- 
modation n provided 1 for 50 offices and 224; met* 
in 24 cabins and 16 wards. The hoepiW/ library, 



185 

and officers 1 quarters occupy the oentral building, 
on which • is the date 1882, and the wards, cabins, 
offices, &4. -Ateon either side. A long 'flight of 
steps At • the entrance gate leads to the water, close* 
to which are fihe ttocfeyard Chaplain's Quarters and* 
the Infectious f Hospital. Boats ply from these steps 
to Valletta/ atid ako dross to the opposite sally-' 
port in Vittdridsa. 

Retracing our steps from the Naval ; HospitaP 
past thfc Na*tf Otoetary to the cross refcdsKwieF turn 
td the -left and descend the hill. Orf the right in 
the distance- ii- Fort San Rocco npon an eminence/ 
and a lane afeo« on the right leads to the -Military 
Cemetery. We pass on the right a carefblly guarded 
powder magazine, and leaving Rinefla Bay on our 
left reafcb Port- RJcasoli. This large fort stands up- 
on 'a promontory* and, in conjunction with Port* St. 
Elmo, defends the entrance to -the Great Harbour. 1 
Tke Turks constructed a battery here during the 
Great Siegey and on-Jdn. l3th- 1629, a fort to pre- 
vent the esoKpe of the slaves was completed on this* 
site whfeh was afterwards called Point I/Orso'from 
the Cavblier Alessandro Orsi, a Bolognese knight 
who superintended the workfe. In 1670 the Com- 
mander Gio. Fran. Ricasoli expended £3,000 on the 
erection of the present fort, endowing it with all 
his property, to the amount of £ 300 per annum. 
For this aet of generosity he was publicly thanked 
by the Grand Master and the Council, and it was 
ordered that the fort should in future bear his name. 
The Grand Master Nicolas Cotoner also gave an 
endowment for the maintenance of the garrison, and 
the Grand Master Perellos strengthened the defences 
in 1698 and following years. On April 3rd 1807 



186 

the celebrated Froberg Ma tiny broke oat in this 
fort, for an account of which see "Malta and its 
Knights." Beneath the flagstaff is an inscription 
commemorating the heroic death of Gunner John 
Johnston who was killed on this occasion whilst 
defending the magazine. His grave is in the little 
cemetery attached to the fort, and greatly needs re- 
storation. In 1837 the inmates of the Poor House 
and of the Hospital for Incurables were removed to 
this spot, as cholera had appeared amongst them. 
They almost all fell victims to its ravages. A light* 
house shewing two perpendicular red lights guides 
sailors into port. The point below the fort from 
which a shoal runs out, is called Gibbet point, as 
pirates were formerly hung in chains there. Fort 
Ricasoli is usually garrisoned by infantry and artil- 
lery, and in the officers' mess is a marble bust of 
the founder. The chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas 
contains a picture by Mattia Preti, painted at the 
expense of the Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner, alsa 
some old paintings of the Byzantine School. 

Descending the steps at the entrance of the 
fort tf e phout " Dghaisa, Joe ! " and for the sum 
of 3d. are speedily conveyed to Valletta. 



4 •* 



ZFAI^T THIRD, 



CHAPTER I. 

Round the Coast. 

Naval Bifle Range, and Grasia Tower.— Geological 
Formations.— Marsa Scala, S. Tommaso Bay, and Delimara. — 
Harsa Scirocoo, and St. Lncian's Tower. — Fossae, Melcarte's 
Temple, and the Cave of Darkness. — Bir Zebbagia and its 
Fortifications. — Benghisa, and Hassan's Cave. The Southern 
Shore. — Fauara and Filfla. — Ruts at Fom-er-Rieh.-— Marfa. — 
Melleha, Its Church and Bay.— Palace of Selmoon. — St. Paul's 
Bay and Island. — Shipwreck of St. Paul.— Neighbourhood 
of the Bay. — Saline Bay, Ghallis Bock, Maddalena Bay, 
and Casal Gargur. 

CLOSE to Fort Ricasoli is a wave worn hollow in 
the cliffis called the "Grotto of the Mattress- 
makers" from some poor fellows who were drowned 
there. The coast trends 8. EL by S., and we reach 
the Naval Rifle Range, used also by the Army, 
and kept in order by Marine markers from H. M. 
8. Hibernia. Above on the hill-top is Fort San 
Rocco and farther away is Fort ,San Leonardo. 
Many salt pans are cat in the rocks, and fisher- 
men with rod and line oontrive to fill their basketa. 
The surf beats fiercely upon the shore, bat a line 
of defence which was either not completed or else 
has crumbled to decay, eight feet thick, with * 



188 

BhallofelditotL hafoca It, ia! evid§nilyjnienjfed ta keep 
off hostile boats. Oar road is not passable for car- 
riages, and many branchings lanes lead to fields and 
detached storehouses. A practicable road, however, 
leads from the beach to the village of Zabbar past 
the ruined tower of ihe MadonnJudtella Grazia, named 
from the church of the village aforesaid, for the 
defence of which it^wa^, ejected in 1620 by the 
engineer and architect Vittorio Cassar. He was a 
Maltese, a serving brother of the Order, succeeded 
his father Gerofamo Cass&r as tfeef l£nighW Engi- 
neer, and in 1618 built the 'Tower of ! Cumitto. The 
tower Was forfnerly approached- by tn^ans of a draw** 
Bridge thrown* across to a ; massive bdttateds • vtipoxt 
which was- a- staircase. The drawbridge" has disap- 1 
peared, and the' tower- Js" inaccessible exGept\a cats,- 
monkeys, blue-jft<Skets or other- species of the satural- 
order of climbers/ The* Grand Master • <lb Rfcdin/ 
(1657*60) greeted 1 fourteen of the^e Watdr-to^rsateng^ 
the shore at his own expense. In 4fei& x ' rieifghkbiir- 1 
hood are the detached " Blata el Bayda," or "White 
"Rock" and several 'caves known 'as' *he ^ drawing 
rooms*' and 'frequented by pleasure --aeetera. ♦. The 
rocks are *v3ry hard, reddish like porous marble; 
Jtad this <Jwtoicfc is/ called ">ei sonkor^ or r "hand* 
Afpne: 5 ' Iiribedcled in the ''rocks are siridll i stairfes \>6§ 
/tiriotts coloutfi called ^»erpei(ttis ,M, €yes/^i wjii6h>iiB 
ebnim<S* wkib 'tito^'Tewk MdUmtiif* and rtW 'Hera* 
rtyillata'' Me&ttiq? fcre^ said to b© v specifics against 
?inomous-;bit^ r atidoiptiitta in; tbe^ide; 'M^ 'Ri$chM 
s^ys: ^K&epi^g the nmitesch) we pas* over puggedr 
h^ps^i of stofl^y displaced; -by. "Ike- wash of .the sea, 
fiome mefes^riuff tw*ive K>r foiart»en : feet in length,' 
eight ; to 4e^Jfe^t In ib^adtl^ aod two feet to twoi 



189 

feet six inshes'in thickness, of yellow sandstone, un- 
oovering the hard underlying strata of.. limestone." 
{See Geology *>f Malta by Capt. Spcott, C. B.) The 
Zonkor or " Hard Stome^ 'Power is . <a landmark, and 
is painted with red and white bands. These coast* 
towers were formerly lettered, Zoncor being ' ' Z." 
We reach Marsa Scala or the u Ladder Port/' 
from ^whence a- road leads inland to Zeitun, Zab- 
bar, and the Three Cities. Many of the inhabitants 
of these places resort hither in spring time, as the 
Walk through Zabbar is pleasant. • Marsa Scala . is 
also called "BtaMIin" or the "Sons of. Sicily" from 
the landing here of Sicilian traders or emigrants. 
A church dedicated to St. Catherine was founded 
in the 12th century. The shallow <bay is only suited 
for small $raft, and fisher folk dwell on its shores. 
On the eastern .promontory is S. Thomas' Tower, 
built in 1614, after the fleet of the Order had caused 
60 Turkish galleys which lauded troops on July 
6th of that year to beat a retreat. .St. Thomas' 
Bay, between which and Marsa Scala is a huge 
rock-hewn mortar, derives its name from a neigh- 
bouring chutfch, and is surrounded by extensive, 
terraced, ami gentle slopes. We pass another fish- 
ing hamlet. This coast was defended by a fort 
erected in 1715 at his own expense by the Duke 
de VendSme, Grand Prior of France. The rocky 
spur of the Monsciar Reef a mile and :a half in 
length with from five 'feet to six fathoms water upon 
it, runs otft below a white cliff. Prudent Captains 
give it a wide berth. The coast is very picturesque 
before we reach the long promontory which termi- 
nates in Cape Delimara, at the mouth of the great 
inlet -of Marsa Soirocco. Delimara means " the home 



190 

at the mooring place" or, perhaps " the shadow of 
the woman/ 1 Close to it is the islet of Ittactia, 
or the "broken off spot." Upon the cape is a 
lighthouse 151 ft. above sea level, with a red and white 
light, revolving every 30 seconds, and visible at a 
distance of 15 miles. Hard by are a nqw and pow- 
erful fort, and a telegraph station from whence the 
approach of ships is signalled to Valletta. A tun- 
ny fishery has until lately been carried on below 
the fort, but its continuance is doubtful, as the pro- 
fits are not large. The bay of Marsa Scirocco is a 
safe harbour, bat is exposed to the southerly winds, 
whence its name, the S. B. wind being known in 
Malta under the name of "Scirocco." There is good 
holding ground, but a sandy reef of shoal water 
fringes the shores, Marsa Scirocco Bay rdsembles 
in shape the harbours of Valletta, having in the 
centre a tongue of land called Marnisi. Ofi the. even- 
ing of May 18th 1565, the Turkish fleet entered 
this harbour, to commence the great siege of the 
Borgo, and on June 1 0th 1798 General Dessaix ef- 
fected a landing, under the orders of the First Na- 
poleon. A tower now used as a police barrack 
on the northern shore still bears the name of the 
French Fort, and at the head of the bay is the fish- 
ing village of the same name. This is a favourite 
resort for pleasure seekers from JZeitun on the after- 
noon of the procession of San Gregorio which takes 
place, weather permitting, on the first Wednesday 
after Easter. There is a statue of St. Andrew near 
the shore, and a spring, a little-above sea level is 
very useful as a washing place. The sea gently bathes 
the shore washing up large quantities of weed which 
is used as manure. On the northern shore, of th$ 



191 

bay are fishponds in which are kept fish of various 
sorts and of all sizes especially mallet to be sent 
hereafter to market. Vegetation thrives down to 
the water's edge. Fishing boots arrive, depart, or 
are drawn np on the shore. Nets are being inade, 
repaired, or dried. The Lampuca is a welcome finny 
visitant to the fishermen in the autumn, A walk 
round the promontory known as Marnisi will bring 
the pedestrian to several crumbling fortifications, 
one of which as appears by an inscription on a 
marble slab was restored by the Congregazione di 
Guerra or the Knights' War Department, in 1795, 
and named after the Grand Master de Bedin who 
did so much to strengthen the defences of the is- 
land. In another fort pierced for fourteen guns, ten 
cannon without carriages are rusting to decay. Cross- 
ing the base of the above named promontory by a 
field path we pass a building with nine or ten mas- 
sive stone buttresses. This is a stable for cavalry 
built in 1711 by the Grand Master Alofio Wigna- 
court. The roof is arched. A stone manger for 25 
horses on one side, and fastenings for as many steeds 
on the other, are still to be seen. Not far distant 
is St. Lucian's Tower built in 1611. The Graud 
Master Alofio Wignacourt named it St. Lucian's Tow- 
er from the church in France in which he had 
been baptised, and attended by numerous knights 
both of high and low degree, went down on board 
the flagship and galleys of the Ord^r to superintend 
the mounting of the guns which were all of bronze. 
When the French landed on Jnne 10th 1798, St. Lu- 
cian's Tower was one of the few posts that offered 
qny resistance, and it only surrendered after the gar- 
rison had been for 36 hours without food or wat^r. 



192 

It haa lately been' considerably strengthened and a- 
dapted for heavy .modern artillery. : Following the 
shore w.e reach the little bay of San Giorgio which 
is full of interest. There is a little church of great 
antiquity here, dedicated to St. George which was. 
demolished in 1659 and restored in 1633, in which 
the crews .of the galleys were wont to hear mass 
before starting on expeditions to Bar.bary- or the Le- 
vant. A proeession comes hither from Zurrieo on 
Ascension Day. Glose to the chnrch is a small bat- 
tery and on the -shore are 70 or :80 caldron shaped 
fossae from two to eight feet fti depth, some of which 
are of considerable size. ;.Some are below sea level, 
and all are more or less .inundated when a scirocco 
is blowing. Several were evidently destroyed when 
the fort. was erected. Thay are much wider at the 
bottom than at the mouth, all. shew marks of intense 
heat, are calcined to the depjih of two inches, and 
seem to have been originally .coated with bitumen. 
Some authorities think that oil from the neighbour- 
ing district of Zeitun was stored in them previous 
.to shipment, whilst others jare of opinion that in 
them were kindled, the bonfires lighted by the wor- 
shippers of Melcarte the Tyrian Hercules whose 
temple stood about 700 feet distant on the hill 
above the bay. Similar cavities were discovered in 
1864 during the jconstrnction of a road to the Cit- 
adel of Rabato -in Gozo, another of considerable 
size may be s^pn to the eastward of the ^temple 
of Melcarte, and one or two other cavities possibly 
of the same character exist on the hill top above 
the Boschetto, on the opposite side of the valley 
to .Mount Verdala. Across these excavations run 
ancient deeply worn cart tracks which , are visible 



193 

on the western side of tie little bay which they 
cross, again emerging on the small peninsula on 
which are the fossae and then disappearing once 
more beneath the waves. What traffic wore these 
deep ruts, which passing as they do over the 
mouths of some of these cavities shew that the 
latter must have been formed since this ancient 
coast road was iu use? Do these submerged ruts 
indicate a local depression of the land during the 
historic period, or are the phenomena due, as Dr. 
Adams supposes, to the action of the waves upon 
soft strata? The temple of Melcarte or the Tyrian 
Hercules which stood on the hill top 700 feet to 
the north of the church of San Giorgio was form- 
erly held in great veneration. From its situation 
it> could *be seen from afar, and Quintinus some- 
what credulously asserts its circumference to have 
been not less than three miles ! Ciantar speaks of 
seeing a portion of the pavement which was part" 
ly formed of native marble, and partly composed 
of mosaic work of one colour (monochromato) of 
Roman workmanship, of such hardness as to resist 
the long continued passage of carts, animals, and 
foot passengers. Bound stones like stone shot, broken 
columns,&c. have been dug up, and a huge bronze 
hinge belonging to one of the gates was presented 
to the church of San Lorenzo in Yittoriosa, and 
now forms part of one of its bells. The only re- 
mains at present to be seen consist o£ a stone wall 
some 33 feet in length composed of very massive 
stones uniting two others of semicircular shape. 
Half way between the temple and the shore are 
three huge monoliths arranged in the form of a 
chamber or cromlech. The stone which serves as 
13 



194 

architrave and roof is as usual somewhat slanting, 
tad measures fifteen feet nine inches in length: the 
two vertical stones are respectively eleven feet 
three inches, and ten feet seven inches in height. 
The largest blocks forming Kit's Ooty House in 
England are twelve feet long and those of the fa- 
mous Lion's Gate at Mycenae are but eleven feet 
in length. Dr. Vossallo thinks that this was the 
sacred boundary beyond which no woman was per- 
mitted to pass, and which was united to the temple 
by walls giving a total area of 800 feet. 

Vases of coarse workmanship are sometimes met 
With and broken pottery is abundant, but Mel- 
carte's temple with its fire Worship is literally no- 
thing but a heap of stones, of which it ,is impos- 
sible to trace the original outline. A cavity similar 
to those on the beach exists in an adjacent field, 
and not far off are the remains of a large reservoir 
which seems to have had some connection with the 
temple. It is about thirty three* feet square, and 
apparently thirteen feet in depth. Like the temple 
it is much blocked up with stones. The roof is 
supported by twelve massive isolated pillars, without 
capitals and arranged in three rows. Some of these 
pillars are formed each by two blocks of stone 8 
ft. 8 in. thick, and others by three blocks, without 
the aid of mortar. Pieces of bitumen still adhere 
to the walls; the roof is flat, and tho structure is 
known as th© Ghar-el-GKganti, "the Giants' Cave" 
and also "Gigantja" the "Giants' Land." On the 
opposite side of the valley to the west of the temple 
of Melcarte is the cave of El Dalam or "the dark- 
ness" which runs a long way through the liqne- 
stone rock, and is worthy the attention ofexplor- 



195 

era. Ciantar even supposes it to extend as far as 
Burmola, and to have its exit near the ancient church 
of Sant' Elena. Proceeding eastward past the church 
of San Giorgio we speedily reach Ramla ta Bir- 
Zebbugia which means "the sandy space by the 
olive-well/' on which stands a little village, much 
frequented during the summer by residents in Val- 
letta and the Three Cities several of whom have 
country houses here. 

At the top of the hill just before the houses 
are reached, there is a remarkable echo which, though 
not equal to the famous Irish one which when 
asked "How do you do Paddy Blake," replies 
"Very well, thank you !" is yet capable of repeating 
six or seven words distinctly in any language what- 
ever ! From Bir-zebbugia extend for some consider- 
able distance extensive fortifications near the shore, 
which were erected by the Grand Master Ema- 
nuel Pinto in 1764 under the following circumstances 
as' recorded in the Annual Register of that year. 

"The Town of Malta was surprised o.n October 
6th, (1760) at the near approach of a large ship 
of Turkish construction, having a White flag with 
a crucifix at her mizen-top and a Turkish pendant 
embroidered with gold that reached to the very 
sea. Boats were immediately sent off, which were 
informed that it was a ship of the Grand Signor's 
commanded by his admiral, and called the Otto- 
man Crown, that she sailed the 2nd %f last June 
with two frigates, five galleys, and other small ves- 
sels from the Dardanelles, that the above mention- 
ed Admiral had beep with this ship only to Smyrna, 
Scio, and Trio, and at length anchored in the chan- 
nel of Strangle, when he and his retinue, to the 



196 

number of 300 persons went on shore. The whole 
ship's complement was 700 men, but 400 being on 
shore on the 19th of September the remaining 300 
were attacked and overpowered by 70 Christian slaves 
armed only with a knife each, part being killed, 
part obliged to jump overboard, and the rest to 
sue for mercy. The heroes, now no longer slaves, 
bore away immediately for Malta, but were soon 
pursued by the two frigates and a Ragusian ship, 
which, by crowding sail, they escaped. On the 8th 
this ship, mounting 68 fine brass guns, and bored 
for 74, was brought safe into the harbour of Val- 
letta, amidst the acclamations of the people. The 
Order of Malta, as an encouragement to such brave 
fellows, have made them the sole proprietors of the 
ship and slaves, as well as all the contribution money 
which latter is said to amount to a million and a 
half of florins, and other effects on board. The 
Grand Signor was on this occasion so highly of- 
fended with the, conduct of his admiral that he dis- 
missed him from the command of the fleet/' Prize 
money must have been plentiful in Malta just then ! 
The Knights feared an attack in force, and erected 
these works besides making other preparations, but 
a compromise was effected. A reef runs out from 
Benghisa Point which serves as a breakwater when 
the wind blows strongly from the N. W. In the 
year 1761 a tomb was discovered in this neighbour* 
hood with an inscription in memory of a certain 
Hannibal (see p. 14). 

In a gorge in this neighbourhood five miles 
distant from the Mnaidra Gap, is a cove or inlet 
up which the sea penetrates for 700 feet, in which 
Dr. Adams made many important geological discov- 



197 

tries. (Notes of a Naturalist in the Nile Valley and 
Malta, pp. 189-196). 

Hassan's Cave is not far off, named, accord 
ing to Dr. Badger, from a certain Saracen who 
made his home in it for some time after the ex- 
pulsion of the rest of his countrymen from the is- 
land. He must have been a brave man, and chose 
a worthy home for a true lover of freedom. Ghar 
Hassan or Hassan's Gave is about 200 feet above 
the sea and is a favourite spot for naval picnics. 
Crowds of sea birds know it well, and after sun- 
down the noises which they make are extremely 
curious, reminding the listener of the dulcet tones 
of Punch and Judy. 

The entrance is somewhat difficult, along a 
narrow path, but is not dangerous if ordinary care 
be used. Those however who easily become dizzy 
should not attempt the task. Within the cave which 
branches out in various directions forming a laby- 
rinth of passages abounding in petrifactions, cool, 
fresh water is continually dropping. The view over 
the sea from the entrance is very pleasant. Wild 
doves haunt this cavern and the neighbouring cliffs. 
Ghar Hassan commands a fine view of the singular 
detached rock known as " The Lady," An Italian 
author wrote a Canto in 1846 on Ghar Hassan 
which well deserves perusal. In a field a little to 
the north of the cave is an erect monolith with 
no remains around it. # 

The most interesting natural formations in Malta 
are in this neighbourhood, much of the rock hav- 
ing a palcined appearance. The cliffs rise higher and 
higher until they reach an attitude of from three 
to four hundred feet, broken here and there by some 



198 

Uied or ravine, such as those of Zurrico and Ma* 
]ak. Near Ghar Hassan are also apparently some 
remains of ancient buildings or rock tombs, which 
might repay the scientific excavator. The neigh- 
bouring district is called Eabar el gharib or "the 
strangers' grave." Who were these strangers? Phoe- 
nicians? Perhaps so! 

Close to the pretty Uied or ravine of Zurrico 
where cliffs rise high in air, are the curious rocky 
mass called from its shape "Monkar" or "tha beak" 
and II Kneia or "the arch" the latter forming .a 
sea-bridge of truly noble proportions. Notice Ghar 
Cattus or "Cat Cave." 

Fauara formerly called " Megira Serba," or the 
"place of joy and gladness" overlooks the sea and 
is a pleasant spot. The ground is very fertile and 
rises in cultivated terraces. The direct road to it . 
from Valletta is through Casals Zebbug and Sig- 
gieui* but it can be reached by means of a rocky 
path from the Inquisitor's Palace some two miles 
distant. Fauara was a favourite resort for pleasure 
seekers, until it was called upon to furnish the wa- 
ter supply of the Bouverie Aqueduct. 

A small island near the shore named Hagra 
Seuda or the "Black Bock/' is said to have for- 
merly been inhabited. Close by are Joseph's Bock 
(Hagra ta Usif,) and the fountain of the servant 
of Sod (Aaynghliem Alia), and about three miles 
from the mainland is the small anvil shaped island 
of Filfla or "Piper" whereon all the lizards are of 
a beautiful bronze black colour, none of their relatives 
on the mainland resembling them in hue. The 
stormy petrel, Manx, and the cinerous shearwater 
breed here. The eggs of the latter are pure white. 



199 

The only bird indigenous to Malta, the Thalassi- 
droma Melitensis also builds its nest at Filfla. Both 
birds and lizards are exceedingly tame. A little 
church, dedicated to the B. V. M. since demolished 
and incorporated with the church of Bubakra near 
Zurrico, formerly stood on the eastern extremity. 
Landing is only possible in calm weather. The ascent 
to the top is difficult for ladies. Half way up the 
cliff is a natural shed, formed by a prodigious mass 
of fallen rock, the very, place for * picnic. Men 
of war use the island as a target, and fragments 
of shot and shell are plentiful. The other day the 
remark was made, by a lady of eouree, that ''the 
ships would be much more usefully employed in 
giving dances in Valletta Harbour than in firing at 
Filfla." Tishing boats cruise off the island, going 
thither occasionally to collect shell-fish* Bo&t from 
the small creek a little to the right of Wied Zur- 
rico to Filfla and back 2*. 6d. Now and again sports- 
men visit it in quest of pigeons and rabbits, but for 
the most part Filfla is left to solitude and deso- 
lation. 

There is a Maltese proverb " See Filfla and die/ 9 
It derives its name from "filfel" which means a 
" peppercorn;" at its western extremity are the rocks 
of Santa Maria, 

All along this coast coral is to be found and 
the fishery was formerly worked but has of late years 
been abandoned as unprofitable. A • coral fishing 
boat is sometimes manned by more than 20 hands; 
the labour is excessive, and the expense great. One 
who knows full well what are the hardships of 
tire fishermen, says " Slavery is a joke to it." A 
heavy irou cross, covered with swabs, is flung over- 



200 

board and dragged along the bottom, breaking off 
the branches and stems of coral in its coarse. It 
is then hauled up and stripped of its gathered spoils. 
The poor fellows who toil so hard live on the very 
poorest and plainest fare, subsisting when times are 
bad, as they but too often are, on little besides 
bread and water. Ladies! as yon admire the beau- 
tiful ornaments fashioned at the cost of so much 
labour, spare now and again a kindly thought for 
these poor " toilers of the . sea! " 

From this point onwards we pass a succession 
of headlands and indentations which call for no spe- 
cial/ remark; all bear Arabic names, and the cliffs 
are boldly picturesque. 

The most remarkable spots are Ghar # Lapsi or 
the Grotto of the Ascension, a favourite spot for 
sea bathing on Ascension Day, the Ras el Raheb or 
the Cape of the Monk, so called from its appear- 
ance from the sea, and the Bay of Fom-erRieh or 
" the mouth of the wind." The district called Re- 
dum Pellegrino or the Pellegrino Rocks derives its 
name from a noble family of the same name. On 
the edge of the cliff to the north of the Bay of 
Fom-er-Rieh are ruts which terminate abruptly on 
the brink of a precipice 80 or 100 feet high, prov- 
ing that the coast has been much washed away dur- 
ing the historic period. Traces of Roman or Gre- 
cian buildings are to be seen close by. 

Here and there a narrow ravine runs inland 
from the sea, and we pass the strongly-fortified hills 
of Bingemma, famous for their Phoenician tombs, 
along the northern face of which runs the great 
geological fault, which stretches across the island 
to the bays of Maddalena and St. Marco. Below 

•£*>. o\ / 



201 

are the sandy Bay of Gineyna tal Migiarro or the 
"Garden at the carting place/' from whence stone 
was formerly exported to Barljary, the headland of 
Karfaba or "the decanter" so called from its ap- 
pearance, and Aayn Toffieha or the "fountain of the 
apple." Cape Majesa is called after an Arab of 
that name* The whole district of Melleha which we 
next reach, derives its name according to general 
opinion from the numerous salt pans which have 
been constructed on the shore, but the Revd. Dr. 
Camilleri thinks that the word Melleha is a corrup- 
tion of the name Mellea applied to this district by 
the Greeks about the year 700 A. D. on account 
of the abundance of honey produced here. The Revd 
Dr. .says that the salt pans only date from the 16th 
century.* On the southern shore is the Tower of 
St. Agata, which was built and armed in the year 
1649. Ras-el-Kammieh means the "hill of corn," 
and Uied-el-Musa is the "valley of Musa" named 
from a deceased Saracen. But here we are at Marfa 
where passengers for Gozo who have come by om- 
nibus from Valletta, take boat to cross the Straits 
of Plieghi four miles in breadth, the southern por- * 
tion of which is known as the Roadstead of Frioul. 
Fare for omnibus and ferry-boat 2$. There is a po- . 
lice barrack at Marfa and a house built by the late 
Marquis of Hastings when Governor of Malta nom- 
inally as a country house, but in reality as a 
shelter in bad weather for travellers* to and from 
Gozo. 

The hills above Marfa are called Guedet-el-Rum 
or "the hills of the Christian Greeks." The cliffs 
r^se sheer from the water's edge as we pass* Cape 
Lahrash and Ras Lahrash the headlands which 



202 

mark the western extremity of Malta, where a tunny 
fishery has been long established. They are named 
from the rugged and barren nature of the soil. About 
three miles seaward is Ball's Bank sometimes called 
St. Paul's Shoal 3} miles long by one broad with 
from 7 to 14 fathoms water. The Bay of Melleha 
opens out to the right. Here the tardy succours 
landed on Sept. 7th 1565 to relieve the hardly pressed 
knights after the famous siege of the Borgo, as 
did also General Baraguay d'Hilliers at the head of 
a French force on June 10th 1798. 

In the sides of the ravine below the village 
of Melleha are numerous caves of various sizes, 
both natural and artificial. Some of these may 
have been Phoenician tombs, as lamps and lachry- 
matories have been discovered, Niches for* lamps 
exist as well as smaller recesses in the larger 
chambers, which have carefully smoothed floors. 
These caves were formerly, as some of them are 
still, inhabited, or used as storehouses. In and near 
one of them close to the church Captain Spratt 
C. B. and Dr. Adams discovered fossil remains of 
the Hippopotamus Pentlandi, as they did also at 
Malak &c. near Crendi. Calypso, the fair goddess 
with whom we were all so well acquainted in the 
days when we used to study our " A ventures de 
Te&maque," is popularly supposed to have resided 
at Melleha. Homer in the Fifth Book of the Odyssey 
gives a glowiqg description of her grotto, which 
is in truth a miserable cave. There is however a 
.fine view from the hill side and from the grotto 
wells forth abundance of clear spring water which 
fertilises a large garden below. Some hermits lived 
here early in the 17th century. The honey of Melleha 



203 

has been compared to that of Hybla but since 
wild thyme has been less abundant in the dis- 
trict, the honey has lost its flavour. The Bay is 
broader than that of St. Paul, with excellent an- 
chorage but exposed to the N. E. winds. There is 
a rocky bank in the centre with shoal water, but 
on either side there is a depth of five or six 
fathoms. The Village of Melleha which is only a 
short distance from the landing place has a church 
much venerated by the Maltese. It is partly ex- 
cavated m the solid rock, is hung with numerous 
votive offerings, and the crypt below is various- 
ly said to have been consecrated by St. Paul, by 
St. Publics, by some bishops on their way to the coun- 
cil of Milevo in Africa in 402 A. D., by the 
bishops* who accompanied Belisarius from Syracuse 
to Numidia in 540 A. D, or by those prelates who 
followed Count Roger hither in 1090 A. D. Many 
pilgrimages and penitential processions have been 
made to this church which oontains a very ancient 
picture of the B. V. M, which is said to have been 
painted on the wall by St. Luke, and the village 
festival is held on Sep. 8th (Nativity of B. V. M.), 
There is a square with a fountain in the centre in 
front of the church for the reception of pilgrims 
and picnic parties. In the Grotta della Madonna 
below the church is a statue of the B. V. M., and 
also several headless figures which are said to have 
been decapitated by the French. Travellers will find 
moderate accomodation at several village hostelries. 
On the hill top near the village of Melleha is 
the massive square tower known as Selmoon or Sa- 
lamone Palace, which commands a very extensive 
view over Malta and Gozo. Permission to visit it 



fc04 

mast be obtained at the Palace, Valletta. In 1607 
Fra Emanuele, a Maltese Capuchin Friar proposed 
from the pulpit of St. John's Church the formation 
Of a "Monte di Redenzione" for the purpose of 
ransoming Maltese and Gozitan slaves from the Turks. 
The Grand Master Wignacourt became the patron 
of the " Monte/' subscriptions flowed in, and in 1619 
Caterina Vitale a Maltese lady left all her property 
including the estate of Selmoon to this charity. 
In 1625 Dr. Gio. Domenico Felice bequeathed 6000 
ficudi for the same purpose, and numerous liberated 
slaves took part yearly in the solemnities of Easter. 
This charity was under the control of one of the 
Grand Crosses of the Order, and prospered exceed- 
ingly. Over the entrance* to Selmoon Palace is an 
escutcheon with a large " R " and three mbuntains 
upon it. The latter emblem symbolises the Monte 
di Pieta (p. 124). The Palace was erected as some 
say by the four commissioners who managed the 
property as a shooting box, whilst others ascribe 
its erection to the Grand Master Verdala as- a de- 
fence against the Turks. From what funds the cost 
of construction was defrayed is uncertain. Leaving 
Selmoon Palace we soon reach the shore close to 
the island of the same name, so called from an 
ancient Maltese family which afterwards emigrated to 
Sicily. It is also known as Gzeier or the " islands." 
The channel which separates it from the mainland is 
shallow and tljp water is beautifully clear, reflecting 
objects at the bottom with the utmost distinctness. 
Rainbow tints of every hue, such as no artist in de- 
lirium ever had the faintest hope of imitating are 
below and at either side of us, whilst above us tower 
high the cliffs, here verdure clad, and there rugged. 



205 

bare, and forbidding, at the foot of which that ilU 
fated vessel which bore St. Paul went to pieces. 
Look about you, and say if yonder Bay of * Mistra 
be not " a creek with a shore," and if this be not " a 
place where two seas meet." Think of all the other 
evidence in favour of this being the scene of the 
shipwreck, and you cannot fail to feel that you are 
on classio and sacred ground. And, moreover, you 
will hardly leave the island astern, marked as it is 
by a white statue of the Apostle, erected in 1845 at 
the expense of Sig. S. Borg and by public subscrip- 
tion with a commemorative inscription, and visible 
far to seaward, without a warm feeling of admira- 
tion for the manly courage displayed by that grand 
old maq who, standing on the wet and slippery deck 
of a stranded ship, which might go to pieces at any 
moment, was more calm and self-possessed than any 
experienced mariner or veteran soldier of that ship- 
wrecked company. 

The island of Selmoon was also the scene of an- 
other heroic deed. Marco di Maria, Royal Pilot of 
the Galleys of the Order was one day returning from 
an expedition to the coast of Barbary, and when off 
Gozo fell in with the squadron of the Turkish Ad- 
miral Biserta. Being hotly pursued, he adopted the 
desperate expedient of running through the shallow 
channel between the island of Selmoon and the main- 
land. In this he succeeded by shifting his crew fore 
and aft, and from side to side, according to the vary- 
ing depth of the water, without checking the speed 
of his galley. The Turkish pursuer followed but took 
the ground. In recognition of his skill and courage 
the island was granted to the bold sailor and his de- 
scendants in perpetuity, John and Narduccio hi* 



206 

son and grandson, equally Mrilful pilots with himself, 
succeeded him as owners, but the latter being killed 
by a musket-ball at the capture of a Turkish flag- 
ship, the island reverted to the Order. We may 
briefly sum up the controversy as to whether St. 
Paul was wrecked close to this island. Some have 
laid stress on St. Luke's words "we were driven 
up and dpwn in Adria" to prove that Meleda in 
the Adriatic and not Malta was the scene of the 
wreck. But Procopius whose words agree with other 
authors says that "Adria" included the whole of 
the Ionian, Cretan, and Sicilian seas. " The islands 
of Gozo and Malta separate the Adriatic and the 
Tuscan sea." Euroclydon seems to have been a 
N. E. wind which would drive the ship t towards 
Malta and not towards Meleda. A ship of the size 
of that which had St. Paul on board would drift 
at the rate of about 36 miles in 24 hours, or 468 
miles in 13 days. Now the island of Clauda is 
480 miles distant from Malta, and it was "on the 
]4th night" that "the shipmen deemed that they 
drew nigh to some country." The soundings in the 
bay agree with those given by St. Luke, and the 
little bay Mistra or " the North West " is just 
such "a creek with a shore" as a ship in distress 
would make for. The term "barbarous" that is, 
"not Greek speaking" people applies to the inhabi- 
tants of Malta but not to those of Mqleda. The 
viper may easily have been brought in a bundle 
of firewood, in St. Paul's own ship, or may since 
have become extinct. . The disease from which the 
father of Publius was suffering is not uncommon 
during the autumn amongst strangers to the island, 
hs the father of the Roman Publius was. Lastly 



207 

the course of "the ship of Alexandria" bound for 
Borne as described by St. Luke tallies completely 
and exactly with that taken now-a-days by vessels 
from Malta bound in the same direction, whereas 
from Meleda such a course is unintelligible. It there- 
fore appears, to say the least, probable that the 
traditional site of the wreck is the true one, al- 
though the exact spot is most likely now # submerg- 
ed, as the crumbling cliffs shew plainly* that the 
waves have been doing a work of destruction for 
many centuries. The following is a description of 
the opposite shore of this world famous inlet. 



st. Paul's bay. 



Here we are at last ! A broad and sunlit bay, 
with an' entrance nearly two miles wide, and run- 
ning inland between two and three miles with 
from 18 to 24 fathoms of water at the mouth, 
and gradually shoaling towards its upper extremity, 
bears the name *of the great Apostle St. Paul. The 
first object that attracts our notice is a square-built 
tower. This was erected in 1610 by the Grand 
Master Alofio Wignacourt, who laid the foundation 
stone on February 10th f the supposed anniversary 
of the shipwreck. There were great doings on these 
shores that day. The Grand Master rode down on 
horseback from Valletta, attended by grand crosses, 
commanders, and knights, galore. The clergy from 
Cittd Vecchia the ancient capital, mustered in fall 
force, litanies were sung, solemn prayers were said, 
and then the Grand Master duly laid the first stone 
of the tower, of wbich the cost of erection was 
defrayed by himself. Close by the tower is a little 
church, also erected in 1610, on the site of a more 



208 

ancient edifice. It contains several frescoes repre- 
senting the shipwreck, the preaching of the Apos- 
tle, and his miracles of healing. Bat the chief 
interest connected with it is the fact that it is 
said to stand on the very spot whereon, according 
to ancient tradition, the fire was lighted by the 
barbarous people who showed no little kindness to 
the shipwrecked mariners. Nor is this unlikely, for 
it is evident at a glance that, no other spot on the 
shores of the bay could be more suitable than this 
for a fishing village, such as then existed and still 
does exist here. The creek just below the church 
is still the refuge for fishing boats during a gregale, 
as Euroclydons are termed in modern days, and is 
called "The Bay of the Idle" or "Take it Easy Creek." 
Near the tower is a stone table with seats which 
picnic parties find very convenient. The Marchese 
Scicluna has a mansion here and refreshments for 
travellers of frugal minds may be obtained at 
several modest hostelries. Boats to St. Paul's Is- 
land, from near the tower. Fare, about 6d. each 
person. This excursion should be made by those 
who wish to understand the locality. 

Skirting the shores towards Kaura Point at the 
eastern entrance of the bay, we note a ruined bat- 
tery and line of defence, erected some century since 
for the defence of the coast. Where are the sol- 
diers now who once manned these works and drew 
water from yonder well? This district is called by 
the natives Buleben, or "The Father of Milk," al- 
though methinks to the eyes of an English gra- 
zier it would present a somewhat desolate appear- 
ance. Passing a tower for coast defence, built on 
a spot called Bugebba, by the Grand Master Las- 



209 

cans, we ' reach Kaura Point, lashed without ceasing 
by the ever sounding waves. Here it was that St. 
Paul and his friends heard the road of breakers 
as the " shipmen deemed that drew nigh to some 
country/ 1 and it is no slight confirmation of St; 
Luke's account that modern soundings exactly agree 
with those which he records. Just off Kaura Point, 
to perceive which at night the ship must have appro* 
ached within a quarter of a mile, the depth of water 
is from 20 to 21 fathoms, whilst a little farther 
within the bay 15 fathoms are found. Close to 
this point is a district called "Benuarrat" or "The 
Possessions of the Heir," so called because the posses* 
sions of Publius, which the Ethiopic version says 
consisted of lands, houses, and gardens, are said 
to have *been situated here. Retracing our steps 
and passing the Tower of St. Paul, we soon reach 
a roadside spring called Ghain Basul, or " the Fountain 
of the Apostle." Tradition asserts that St. Paul 
and his companions being tormented by thirst, the 
Apostle caused this spring to burst forth. The 
probability is that he drank of its waters, and 
hence the name. Above on the hill top is Uardia, 
or "The Look-out Station/' from whence it is said 
that the wreck was first descried by the watchers 
on duty. It may well have been so, for see yonder 
is a dghaisa bound for Gozo, close to the tradit- 
ional scene of the wreck. How distinctly in this 
clear air can her every movement be distinguished ! A 
winding road ascends the hill to Selmoon Palace 
and the village of Melleha from the bottom of the 
bay from whence a plain called Uied-in-nahlia or 
" the valley of bees " extends across the island. 
LeaVing St. Paul's Bay, we reach the inlet of 
14 



210 

the Saline or "the saltworks," where large and 
numerous saltpans earn money for the Government. 
The stream which during the rainy season flows 
in considerable volume down the Uied-el-Ghasel or 
"Valley of Honey" near Musta, here finds its way 
to the sea. This bay was protected by a fort 
before the year 1494, and sportsmen find amuse- 
ment here during the autumn migration or Grand 
Passage whioh lasts from September 10th till the 
end of the year in pursuit of plover, woodcock, 
and aquatic birds. 

Close in shore is the Ghallis Bock, wave-beaten 
for evermore* We pass the tower of Bahar-e-Ciaac 
or "the pebbly sea" and the little bay of San 
Marco, defended by "the tower on the ridge," square 
and stone built. Maddalena Bay fortified by the 
Grand Master Lascaris, was the scene of a French 
landing on June 10th 1798. The church of St. 
John the Evangelist just below the northern extre- 
mity of the great geological "fault" which inter- 
sects "the island, was built about 150 years ttince' 
in gratitude for an unexpected escape from Turk- 
ish corsairs. 

On the hill-top is the village of Gargur, and 
there are several 6aves in this neighbourhood. Mad- 
dalena Fort crowns the height, supported by Pem- 
broke Fort. Both these forts are heavily armed. 
Crossing the Rifle Ranges we reach Pembroke Camp 
(p. 150.) • 



211 



CHAPTER II. 
Country Excursions. 

Route I. — To and from St. PauVs Bay. 

The San Giuseppe Road. — Villages of Curmi, Birchir- 
cara, Lia, and Nasciar. — Syndics and Villages.— The "Great 
Fault."— The Valley of Honey.— St. Paul el Milki. — Mus- 
ta Church. — Palace and Gardens of Sanfc' Antonio. 

LEAVING Floriana by the Porte des Bombes we 
. soon "reach the head of the Great Harbour (p. 
162), and take the right hand road. 

The San Giuseppe Road, along which our route 
now lies, traverses a very populous suburb, inhab- 
ited by industrious working people. They toil hard 
but they have labour to spare in the cause of re- 
ligion. Witness yonder large and well-built church 
on our left, which is by no means the only one 
in the district. It was erected by the voluntary 
labour of those who dwell around it. Would the 
residents in many English parishes do likewise? 
Close at hand is the Franklin, cigar factory, the 
courteous manager of which declares that he lias but 
one fault to find with the ladies, " Tbey smoke, but 
not enough." To our left is Casal Curmi (Casal is 
the Maltese name for a village), which was formerly 
the residence of nearly all the bakers who supplied 
the tables of the knights. The church is dedicated 
to St. George, of whom we in England know some- 



212 

thing, and claims to possess a piece of the stand- 
ard carried by htm as a Roman military tribune. 
We pass the cattle market, from whence comes much 
of our beef and mutton, and the arches of the aque- 
duct (p. 144). Just at the spot on which we now 
are a memorable skirmish took place. The French 
by their indiscriminate spoliation of churches and 
public buildings, had goaded the Maltese to mad- 
ness,, until at last they rose in insurrection and mas- 
sacred the garrison of Citta Vecchia. Ignorant of 
this disaster General Vaubois, who commanded in 
Valletta, despatched a detachment of 200 men to 
the relief of Citt& Vecchia. The Maltese met 
them at this point, and, armed only with stones, 
farm implements, and a few rusty muskets^ and pro- 
fiting by the shelter afforded by the numerous stone 
walls to be found everywhere in Malta, completely 
routed the detachment and compelled it to retire 
to Valletta. 

On the right is the Conservatorio Bugeja, a 
noble almshouse built by a Maltese gentleman named 
Bugeja at his own expense. It was opened a 
short time since, and is under the control of Sis- 
ters of Charity. It provides a home for orphans. 
The cost is estimated at £50,000. 

We here part company with the aqueduct, and 
turn to the right, passing through the village of Bir- 
chircara the name of which means "the flowing spring" 
with on the* right its noble church dedicated to 
Sant' Elena, and on the left the ruins of another. 
Turning to . the right in the village we soon reach 
Casal Lia sheltered by hills and with its church 
dedicated to S. Salvador. Here grow some of the 
sweetest oranges of which the Mediterranean * can 



213 

boast, and the Villa Paris Hotel kept by G. B. 
Mallia has numerous visitors. 

For purposes of police Malta is divided into 
seven districts, each containing several casals or 
villages. Each district is under the charge of a 
Syndic or Country Magistrate. These "Sindaci" were 
first appointed in 1839 as successors in legal, though 
not in military matters of the "laogo-tenenti" or 
"Capi dei Casali" who date from 1798. They have 
jurisdiction in civil cases below the value of £5., 
and in minor police cases, do various kind offices 
for the villagers, and are most useful as "Fathers 
of the People." 

One Maltese village is very much like another. 
The streets are narrow, so narrow, indeed, that in 
many pl&ces two vehicles can scarcely if at all pass 
one another, but they have the great advantage 
of excluding the burning rays of the summer sun. 

In the middle of the village there is always a 
noble church. In Malta church building seems to 
have been carried on to a great extent at two se- 
parate periods. The first was at the time when Eng- 
lishmen were fighting hand-to-hand at Basing house, 
Marston Moor, and Naseby, aod the other was in 
the days of the Second George. There are the 
usual statues of saints, a few stately houses, form- 
erly the homes of foreign knights or native nobles, 
and numerous dwellings, all filled to overflowing with 
a busy, industrious, Arab dialect speaking popula- 
tion. The people look up pleasantly as we pass, 
and return our "Buon giorno," or " Sahha ghali- 
com " ("Health be to you") with right good will. 
The women especially, like all races of eastern origin, 
artf exceedingly fond of in-door life, and the streets 



214 

are solitary indeed compared with those of any vil- 
lage in England. The ever-barking dofif, the chirp- 
ing sparrow, and the cicala, which, like Tennyson's 
"Brook," "goes on for ever," are often the only 
sounds to be heard. And the cicalas do make a 
noise. The other day a lady said "I must apolo- 
gize for calling when you are just going to dinner. 
I can hear the frying of the fish." It -was only 
the cicalas in the garden. 

We climb a steep hill and reach the rock-perch- . 
ed village of Naxaro or Naseiar. Let us look 
for a moment at the fair and widespread prospect 
at our feet. Yonder, perched upon its hilltop, is 
Citta Vecchia, a city of decaying palaces and crumb- 
ling ramparts, almost seeming a city of the dead. 
Yet it is has a stirring history of its own" to tell. 
Built, according to an intelligent compositor in a 
certain Maltese printing office, 1404 years before, 
instead of after the flood, Carthaginians, Greeks, Ro- 
mans, and men of Tyre have alike toiled to strengthen 
it or called it "home." Cicero speaks of its cotton 
cloth, and— but stop a bit, is not its history told 
in each and all of the encyclopaedias? Breaking the 
sky-line is the palace tower of Verdala, built by a 
certain Cardinal Verdala, Grand Master in Malta in 
the days when Good Queen Bess held sway in 
"Merrie England/* Afar in the distance are the 
towers of Zeitun, a name which means "abundance 
of oil," and <jf Zurrioo, where most of the people 
have blue eyes, and many a village more. All Val- 
letta seems to lie at our very feet, although in real- 
ity some miles distant, whilst nearer, and rising 
amidst groves of golden orange and sombre cypress, 
is Sant' Antonio, some time the residence of thfeir 



215 

Boyal and Imperial Highnesses the Duke and Duch- 
ess of Edinburgh. Many another abject of in* 
terest is there in that broad, fair, and highly cul- 
tivated plain, but "Forward" is the cry, and we 
enter Nasciar, which is a very good type of an 
ordinary Maltese village. The church was com- 
menced in 1616, completed in 1630 and consecrated 
in 1742, 

Just outside the village is a statue of St. Paul, 
who is jBaid to have preached on this spot. The 
people of Nasciar claim to have been the first to 
receive Christian baptism, and it is somewhat sin- 
gular that the Maltese still call themselves Naza- 
renes. But it is probable that Nasciar derives its 
name from an Arabio word, which means "separated," 
standing; as it does, on the top of the great geo- 
logical "fault" which runs completely across the island 
and has here lowered the strata some 400 feet. 
We cannot better describe this "fault," which is one 
of the most characteristic features of Malta, than 
by quoting the Rev. M. H. Seddall:^"To the exist- 
ence of this fault is due one of the most picturesque 
features of Malta. Often on a fine spring, morning, 
have I stood on the ridge of the Nasciar heights, 
the whole plain below glowing with the blossoms of the 
purple suila or clover, the inlets of the bays of the 
Saline, and St. Paul and the Straits of Frieghi reposing 
like gems of deepest blue in their getting of white 
rock, which the sun irradiated into a dazzling lustre, 
enjoying the first cool breath of th& maestrale, aa 
it dimpled the azture of the l&zy deep, and map- 
ping out- the course of present or future excursions 
with gun, hammer, or botanical bos." 



216 

To the right is the village of Gargur, and we 
pass through the ruinous Nasciar Lines. Descend- 
ing the hill we see the Great Fault towering high 
above us. . To the left is the village of Musta with 
its wide spreading dome, nearly as large as that 
of St. Paul's Cathedral, and closer at hand is the 
Uied el Ghasel, or Valley of Honey, down the rocks 
of which, according to tradition, once literally flowed 
in a luscious stream the produce of the toil of the 
honey bees. But that was "once upon a time," 
and truth to tell, this deponent hath never been 
witness to any thing of the kind. The Uied el 
Ghasel is a rocky gorge, with lofty cliffs on either 
side, which during the winter rains, when a ■ wild 
torrent fills the whole bottom of the ravine, might 
almost be mistaken for a mountain glen in Wales 
or bonnie Scotland. Within its recesses is a little 
chapel dedicated to St. Paul the Hermit, close to 
which is a spring, the water of which is so cool 
and delicious that some of the Grand Masters would 
drink no other. Tradition has it that a certain saint 
formerly dwelt in this secluded spot, and often had 
occasion to reprove the people of Musta for their 
wickedness. They laid a snare for him, hoping to 
convict him either of want of charity or immoral- 
ity. The saint was more than a match for his per- 
secutors, and walking down to the shore spread his 
cloak upon the waves and sailed away to Gozo. 
The people of Musta were, like Lord Ullin, " left 
lamenting." 

On the heights is a strong fort, during the 
construction of which many antiquities were -discover- 
ed. Close to the highway side . is a little shrine 
which is interesting as recording the fact that •so 



217 

lately as the last century the Bishop of Malta bore 
also the proud title of Archbishop of Damietta, a 
touching instance of the tenacity with which the 
Knights of St. John clung to the ancient traditions 
of the Crusades, wherein Damietta, the key of 
Egypt, on the side of Syria, played no unimportant 
part. 

The plain of Nasciar is rich and fertile. One 
glance at its broad acres is sufficient to dispel for 
ever the myth that the soil of Malta was origin- 
ally imported from Sicily. Why, whole fleets of 
Great Easterns kept chartered for an indefinite period 
would never have accomplished so Herculean an 
undertaking. 

Here we are at length on the track of the 
great Apostle of the Gentiles. To the left, on the 
hillside above the road, is a little chapel, reared upon 
a spot which has for many centuries borne the tra- 
ditional name of San Paul el Milki or " St. Paul 
received," whereon it has always been said that 
Publius, who was governing the island during the 
illness of his father, received the shipwrecked voy- 
agers. Nor is it by any means improbable that 
such was the case. But no direct confirmation of 
the tradition existed until lately, when excavations, 
which are still going on, brought to light on this 
very spot the remains of a large and ancient oil 
mill, which, from various indications, is clearly proved 
to be contemporaneous with the visit of St. Paul 
to the island. Remains of a dwelling-house or villa 
are close by. The oil- vats and millstones, worked 
by mules or slave labour, are in situ. Fragments 
of tesselated pavement, a votive altar, partition walls, 
subterranean constructions, and in short, all the ac- 



218 

cessories of the country residence of an opulent 
Soman exist here. It is a great pity that this al- 
most solitary and priceless relic of Roman occupation, 
and which is moreover connected by tradition with 
one of the most stirring incidents in the life of St. 
Paul, is not more carefully preserved. 

From San Paul el Milki it is but a short di- 
stance to St. Paul's Bay/ (p. 204). 

We may advantageously vary our route by re- 
turning vi& Musta, to visit its noble church, the 
dome of which is one of the largest in the world. 
That of the Pantheon is 143 feet, St. Peter's is 
139 feet, and St. Paul's Cathedral 107 ft. in dia- 
meter. 

The first stone was laid on the 30th of May 
1833. No scaffolding was used, and the new*church 
was erected over the old one which was afterwards 
removed. The architect was Sig. G. Grongnet de 
Vass4, and the cost in money was £21,000, sup* 
plemented by the voluntary labour of the people 
on Sundays and festivals. The new chnrph was 
consecrated in 1864, the old one being entirely de* 
molished in eight days. A staircase leads to the 
summit of the dome. 

En route for Valletta we pass through Casals 
Lia and Balzan, the latter name meaning "the place 
of paying toll." In flCasal Lia are the Palace and 
Gardens of Sant' Antonio. The Palace was built 
in 1625 by the Grand Master De Paula, and was 
used as a country house by his successors. The 
gardens are well worthy of a visit. A permit must 
be obtained at the Palace in Valletta to visit the pri- 
vate gardens. 



219 

From hence we return to Valletta from which 
Sant' Antonio is about four miles distant by the 
highroad connecting Valletta with Citta Vecchia, 
passing the Rose, Shamrock, and Thistle Hotel kept 
by J. Sheppard, opposite to which a portion of the 
Indian Contingent was' encamped in 1878. 



220 



Route II. — Cittd, Vecchia and its neighbourhood. 

Casal Attard, and the Lunatic Asylum. — Citta Vecchia, 
its Sanatorium and Cathedral. — St. Paul's Grotto, and the 
Catacombs.— Bingemma, Nadur, and Imtarfa. — Mount Ver- 
dala, and the Boschetto. — The Inquisitor's Palace. — Casals 
Siggieui and Zebbug. 

AFTER passing Sant' Antonio Palace and Gardens 
(p. 218) we soon reach Casal Attard, "the 
village of roses" which has a fine church dating 
from 1613, consecrated in 1830, and dedicated to 
the Assumption of the B. V. M. The principal pic- 
ture is by Pasquale Buhagiar. Between Ca&al At- 
tard and Citta Vecchia is the new Lunatic Asylum 
on the left of the road, in the Wied Incita. 

It contains about 400 inmates, and was com- 
pleted during the administration of Sir Gaspard Le 
Marchant. The old Lunatic Asylum was situated 
at Floriana. 

A long ascent brings us to Citta Vecchia the 
ancient capital. (For its history see Part I. Chap, 
ii.) In the time of the Order the city was governed 
by a Hakem or Ruler, chosen yearly by the Grand 
Master, from the principal Maltese citizens. He 
was called " the Captain of the Rod," and his juris- 
diction usually extended over the civil and criminal 
cases of all the villages in the island. The Magis- 
tracy of the city consisted of three officers, called 
Giurati, who were also chosen annually by the Grand 
Master. The Civil Court was composed of three 
Judges one of whom decided lawsuits, whilst the 



221 

remaining two, called Idioti, only settled cases of 
small moment. 

Over the gates of the city are inscriptions 
recording the strengthening of the fortifications by 
the Grand Master Manoel de Yilhena in 1724 and 
1727. Under the principal gateway stands a bat- 
tered statue of Juno, with peacocks on her breast, 
and just within the gate is the site of the ancient 
Temple of Apollo and a Theatre, some remains of 
which were discovered in 1747. On the right as 
we enter is the old Palace of the Giurati which 
was converted into a Military Sanatorium by Sir 
Gaspard le Marchant. Numerous dungeons in one 
of which is a block of stone on which criminals 
were beheaded, and the justice room of the Giu- 
rati are still in existence. 

The Cathedral occupies the traditional site of 
the house of Publius, who entertained St. Paul, 
and is said to have been consecrated by him as 
first Bishop of Malta. The old Cathedral built 
about 1090, was destroyed by an earthquake in 
1693. The first stone of the present structure was 
laid on May 21st 1697, and it was consecrated on 
October 8th 1702. The architect was Lorenzo Gafa. 

On the west front are the arms of the Grand 
Master Perellos, of Bishop Palmieri, who conse- 
crated the Cathedral, and of the city. The two 
bell towers 126 ft. high contain six bells, one of 
which belonged to the old church.^ The length of 
the church is 170 fit, extreme breadth 97 ft. 3 
in. breadth of nave 36 ft. 2 in. 

The paintings on the roof the work of Vincenzo 
Manno a Sicilian artist in 1794, representing the life of 



222 

St. Paul, the Apostles, and Prophets are very fine. 
Notice the marble mosaic tombstones in the pave- 
ment. 

In St. Luke's Chapel the Evangelist is depict- 
ed as painting the portrait of the B. V. M. In 
the Chapel of S. Gaetano the saint is represented 
as receiving in his arms the Infant Jesus. The 
Chapel of San Publio contains pictures of his 
baptism and martyrdom. The Reliquary Chapel 
contains numerous relics and a curious Byzantine 
portrait of St. Paul covered, with silver. The Choir 
has two beautiful mosaic pictures of S. S. Peter 
and Paul. The ancient wood work brought from 
Catania in 1480, the silver Cross from. Rhodes, 
and the music books five oenturies old, are worthy 
of attention. The high altar is formed of* costly 
marbles, and the altar stone is said to have for- 
merly covered the grave of the father of Pfcblius. 
In the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament are in- 
terred the Bishops of Malta, and it contains a por- 
trait of the B. V. M. said to be by St. Luke. 
In the Chapel of the Annunciation is a picture 
representing St. Paul routing 18,000 Moors who 
besieged the city in 1470. The font and the doors 
of the sacristy belonged to the old cathedral. In 
the sacristy is a portrait of Count Roger who freed 
Malta from Arab dominion in 1090. The treasury 
contains many objects of value and there is a fine 
view from the windows of the Chapter Room. 

Near the Cathedral is the Bishop's Palace in 
which is a series of episcopal portraits. The Se- 
minary was built in 1733. The chapel contains 
some pictures by the Cav, Favray, The heart of 
Bishop Alpheran is interred here. • 



223 

Passing the Cathedral the main street leads 
to a bastion from which there is a fine view. In Str. 
Magazzini may be seen the last calesse or Mal- 
tese carriage in the island. 

We proceed to the populous suburb of Rabato. 
Beneath the church of San Publio is a grotto in 
which it is said that St. Paul lived during his 
three months' residence in the island. The stone 
of this grotto is asserted to be of great efficacy 
in the cure of fevers, poisonons bites &c, and 
tradition affirms that the size of the grotto never 
alters, however much stone is taken from it. Close 
to the church of the Shipwreck of St. Paul is 
a cemetery in which many natives and foreigners 
are interred. Also a statue of St. Paul preaching, 
it being said that he preached on this, spot and 
planted the cross on the place on which now Stands 
a cross of stone. On this occasion his voice is 
said to have been audible in Gozo. There are 
several churches and monasteries in Citta Vecchia 
and Rabato, also two hospitals. The first of these 
dedicated to the Holy Ghost dates from at least 
1370 bnt was modernised in the 17th century. It 
is under the control of the local government. The 
other hospital is called ta Saura, having been 
founded in 1654 by a Maltese doctor who endowed 
it with all his property. Numerous other bene- 
factors have also contributed to its funds. 

Close to St. Paul's Church are some large 
catacombs, which are variously "said to be of 
Phoenician, Roman, and Christian origin. Admiss- 
ion and a guide are readily procurable. Long pass- 
ages lead now and again to spacious chambers, sup- 
ported by rudely formed columns* Sepulchral niches 



224 

for men, women, and children are to be seen in 
vast numbers, some still containing human remains 
whilst other tombs are closed by a large stone. 
These catacombs cover a large area, and tradition 
tells of a schoolmaster and his pnpils who lost 
their way, and perished miserably. Ladies shonld 
put on shawls on coming oat as the air of the 
catacombs is cold. Some very interesting catacombs 
were discovered in 1878 not far from those of S. 
Paul, and similar excavations have been met with 
in various parts of the island. They all contain 
circular stones with raised rims, the use of which 
is as yet undetermined. 

Leaving Citta Vecchia in a westerly direction 
we pass the fountain of Ghain Clieb (see p. 22). 
The road, to the right leads to Bingemma where *a whole 
hillside is covered with tombs, apparently of Phoeni- 
cian origin, some of which are used as storehouses 
and even as dwellings. For a full acconnt of these 
tombs see Boisgelin's Ancient and Modern Malta. 
Extensive is the view over land and sea from 
that breezy hill-top. Good walkers who do not 
object to scaling an occasional stone wall will 
enjoy a walk along the cliffs to the new fort at 
Bingemma to which carriages may be sent, and 
from which a good road leads to Valletta. An 
order from the Commanding Royal Engineer ia 
required to visit this fort. 

Nadur is a pleasant spot upon the slope of 
tbe Bingemma ^Hills, about two miles to the S. W. 
of which is the rock fortress of Kalaa tal Bahria 
(see p. 22.) At Imtarfa formerly stood the tern* 
pie of Proserpine which was restored by the Roman 
Procurator Chrestion. Imtahleb which means the 



225 

"father of milk" near the shore, and about three 
miles to the S. W. of CittA Vecchia is a favour- 
ite spot for picnic parties. Wild strawberries abound, 
gardens are highly cultivated! water and shade are 
obtainable, and there is an extensive view from 
the neighbouring heights. Springs supply tne Three 
Cities with water. 

About two miles to the S. of Citta Vecchia 
is Mount Verdala on which stands the fortress 
palace of the same name. Square built, it owes 
its erection to the Grand Master Cardinal Verdala. 
Notice the Latin inscription. "The dew and rain 
of Mount Verdala 1586." Permission to visit Verdala 
Palace may be obtained at the Palace, Valletta. Some 
frescoes by the Florentine artist Filippo Paladini repre- 
sent the* principal events in the life of the founder. 
H. E. the Governor sometimes resides at Verdala Pal- 
ace during the summer months. Verdala being 
too far distant from Valletta from which, however, it 
is distinctly visible, the Grand Master De Paula built 
the Palace of Sant' Antonio as a country house. Un- 
successful attempts were made some years since to 
make Verdala Palace the centre of the manufact- 
ure of silk. 

Descending the hill, either by the road or by 
a walk from the Palace we reach the garden called 
the Boschetto the country seat of the Grand Mas- 
ters previous to the erection of Verdala Palace, 
attached to which was an expensive (Jeer park. The 
orange gardens are pleasant, and an artificial grotto 
with abundant water, and furnished with a stone 
table and seats attracts numerous picnic parties. 

The Economioo-Agrarian Spciety holds an an- 
nual Agricultural Show in these gardens on June 

15 



226 

29th (SS. Peter and Paul), on which day from time 
immemorial a popular festival has been held at this 
spot. 

A pleasant walk through a fertile valley to the 
left of the Boschetto brings ns to the Inquisitor's 
Palace. This country house is government property. 
It has a desolate garden, and a slope leads down 
to a spring called Ghain el Kbira or the " Great 
Fountain/ 1 This whole district produces quantities 
of fruit. To the B. of the Inquisitor's Palace is the 
district of Gorghenti, (see p. 16), watered by 
springs one of which has its source beneath an 
old building called Ta Durrensi. The Torre tal 
Fulia an ancient building is in this neighbourhood. 
To the E. of the Palace are also several enorm- 
ous stones in a wall above some caves, of the 
inhabitants of which there is an interesting account 
in Ciantar's Malta ffltwtrata. The neighbouring vil- 
lage of Siggieui or "Lord of air" so called from 
its commanding position has a ' fine church, but 
need not detain the traveller. It is called Citta 
Ferdinanda. From the Inquisitor's Palace we may 
either return direct to the Boschetto, or enjoy a 
somewhat longer but most enjoyable walk along the 
lofty cliffs which form Malta's southern shore. Uasal 
Dingli near the Boschetto named from an ancient 
Maltese family need not detain us. We may return 
from Verdala through Casals Zebbug "the village 
"of olives "t, which is also styled OittA Rohan, and 
Gasal Curmi. This latter name means either "the 
vineyard", "the head", or the waters' -meet." Gasal 
Curmi bears the title of CitU Pinto. The present 
church dedicated to S. Giorgio dates from 1584, 



227 

and was consecrated in 1731. The principal pic- 
ture and the small one above it are by Mattia 
Preti. 

Many cart builders, wheelwrights, millwrights, 
blacksmiths, and house carpenters dwell at Casal 
Cur mi. We speedily reach Valletta. 



228 



Route III. — The Southern and Eastern Villages. 

Casals Luoa, Mioabiba, and Crendi.— The Macluba. — 
Hagiar Khem. — CasalB Zurrico, Safi and Ghiroop. — Casal Zeitou, 
and its Procession. — Casals Tarxien, Paola, and Zabbar. 

CROSSING the Marsa (p. 163.) we ascend a slope 
and enter Casal Luca or the "village of poplars" 
inhabited by stone masons and quarrymen. The church 
dedicated to St. Andrew was rebuilt in 1650, con- 
secrated in 1783, and contains three pictures by 
Mattia Preti. The whole of this district is one 
vast quarry. After the stone has been removed, 
the virgin soil found in the fissures is formed into 
fertile gardens. The first turn to the right leads 
to Micabiba and Grendi. Note the stone threshing 
floors on which muzzled oxen tread out the corn. 
Micabiba is distinguished by its square tower and 
mounds of quarry refuse. Its inhabitants are stone- 
cutters, and many of them attain a great age. Mica- 
biba "the pleasant place" has a church dedicated 
to the Assumption of the B. V. M. which was 
completed in 1689, and consecrated in 1750. Casal 
Crendi, 6 miles distant from Valletta "the place 
of destruction" is a small agricultural village, wherein 
beggars abound. Its church was commenced in 
1685 and finished in 1712. The principal picture 
is by Rocco Buhagiar. About half a mile from the 
village is the extraordinary chasm of the Macluba 
or " ruined place." This is an immense oval de- 
pression said to measure 350 feet by 200, with a 
depth of 130 feet. Obtain the key, and descend 



229 

by a rugged staircase to the garden below. The 
remains of a cistern are visible- The subsidence 
of a care caused, by an earthquake shock may 
account for this remarkable depression. . Tradition 
says that a village formerly stood here, jrhich was 
swallowed up on. account *of the wickedness of^the 
dwellers therein. The Macluba is the ,very place 
for a picnic. A rural policeman will be found 
useful to keep the beggars in check. Close by 
stands a little chapel dedicated to St. Matthew. 

A quarter of an .hour's drive from, th? Macluba 
brings us to Hagiar Khem or the "Stones of Wor- 
ship/' one of the ancient high places- of 5a%l which 
resembles the famous - structures of Mytfenps. Sev- 
eral altars are in situ and broken fragments of 
others s'trew the ground. Many of the stopes are 
pitted with small puntitures, the wejl .known Phoe- 
nician sacred emblem. Excavations, were made here 
a few years since and seven Phoenician deities were 
brought to lights which; afre now in the Public Mu- 
seum. (See the Guide to the- Museum;, by Dr. 0. 
Yassallo, F. S. A*)' 

The various chambers of the temples were form- 
erly separated by doors secured by bolts working 
in grooves. Ropes seem to have run through holes 
cut in the stones, and the mortice and tenon, fas- 
tening was. evidently in use. A mile distant from 
Hagiar Khem are the ruins of another temple called 
Mnaidra "the sheep fold" said to have been de- 
dicated to Esculapius. It stands on the cliff nearer 
the sea to the W. of Hagiar Khem, is m a much 
better state of preservation, and should, be visited. 

Let US return through Casal Zurrico, This is 
a • large village . with some good houses. There is 



230 

a small inn near the church, recommended to travel- 
lers of modest requirements kept by Felice Ferraro. 
The present church is dedicated to St. Catherine, 
was commenced in 1634, completed in 1656, and 
consecrated in 1781. There are several pictures by 
Mattia Preti. Zurrico means "blue" and strange to 
say, many of the people have blue eyes. Others 
derive the name from a neighbouring creek called 
"the blue sea/' whilst a third derivation is from 
a word meaning "east" on account of its position. 

In a street near the church are some huge stones 
forming part of a house. These are of either Phoe- 
nician or Greek workmanship, and are fully des- 
cribed in M. Houel's Voyage Pittoresque (1687) 
in the Public Library. In the adjoining hamlet of 
Bubakra "the Father of cows" is a large ' square 
tower, and in the church of San Leone is a triptych 
formerly belonging to the now demolished church 
on the islet rock of Filfla. (p. 198.) 

Between Zurrico and the next village Safi are 
te be seen in Str. S. Andrea some huge stones 
forming part of a wall similar to those at Zurrico. 
In an adjoining field on the right are large tanks, pro- 
bably Phoenician, empty during the summer only. 
The word Safi means "clear, serene," and it is 
said that its inhabitants have never suffered from 
the plague. It is a small agricultural village. The 
church commenced in 1726, was completed in 1740, 
and consecrated in 1754. 

Between Safi and Casal Chiroop are the ruins 
of the Torre ta Giauhar, " the tower of jewels or 
treasure/' built of immense stones and circular in 
form. Many Phoenician tombs exist hereabouts, 
and this tower, which needs careful clearing out; 



231 

was probably erected by these hardy sailors, though 
some think that Arab masons reared it. The tower 
is somewhat difficult to find without a guide. 

Chircop a small agricultural village named 
from an ancient Maltese family, has a church built 
in 1500, enlarged in 1706, and consecrated in 1782. 
The principal picture is by R. Caruana. Gasal Gudia 
may be recognised by its tall spire 102 ft high 
ercted by subscription in 1860. The architect was W. 
Baker, Esqre. The . word Gudia means "the lofty 
hill." The church with the dedication of the As- 
sumption of the B. Y. M. dates from 1656. To 
our right is Casal Luca, but we incline to the left 
and enter Casal Asciach, a quiet secluded village 
on the highest ground io» this part of the island. 
The signal tower has conveyed much intelligence 
between Valletta and Marsa Scirocco. The word 
Asciach means "delight." Tha church was built 
between 1733 and 1756. 

We soon reach the large village of Zeitun wherein 
much lace is manufactured. Its name means "abun- 
dance of olive oil" The old parish church was com* 
monly called Biskallin or "the sons of Sicily" from 
an ancient chapel erected near Marsa Scala in the 
12fth century. The present church was commen- 
ced in 1692 and consecrated in 1742. On the Wed- 
nesday after Easter there is a solemn procession 
in this village: that of Our Lady of Piety. This 
procession is variously said to have originated aft- 
er a deliverance from locusts, from* the plague of 
1675-6, or from a Turkish fleet which was wrecked 
near Marsa Scirocco. Maltese brides used former- 
ly to stipulate that their husbands should take 
them to the next festival at Zeitun 4 seat them 



232 

upon a wall, and bay them a piece of hemp- seed 
sweetmeat. To our left is Casal Tarxien through 
which pass all the most direct roads to the east 
of the island. The Bouverfe Aqueduct constructed 
in 1844-5 which brings water from Fauara, Imtah- 
lep, &c, to the Three Cities, passes near Casals 
Crendi, Lucfc, and Tarxien. The name Tarxien (pro- 
nounced Tarshien), recalls the factr that the Car- 
thaginians had a settlement here in days of old. 
The churcn was built between 1610 fcnd 1618. Casal 
Paola farther to the west than Tarxien was founded 
in 1626 by the Grand Master Antonio de Paola. 
Being only two centuries old, Casal Paola is also 
called Casal Nuova or' "the new village/' The 
Civil Prison' is near this casal. The church de- 
dicated to. S. Ubaldesca was built in 1626 by 
the Grand Master Antonio de Paula. Vittorio Cas- 
par was thfc architect, but the church is still un- 
finished, and the village has never been densely 
populated. 

A Straight road lmed. with trees leads to Casal 
Zabbax, thfe inhabitants of which are exhployed in cot- 
ion weaving and agriculture. ' The word Zabbar means 
"the drinker" and in 1797 it received from the 
last Grand' Master the. name of CittsL Hompesch, 
as Casal Siggieui did that of Citta Ferdinanda. 
The French ' madd a desperate sortie in 1798, but 
were, uriabte to' capture this village. In the. neigh- 
bourhood are the remains of an amphitheatre. The 
church dadtcate'S to' our Ltfdy pf Favour was com- 
menced in' 1641 % completed in 1696, and consecrated 
in 1784. The principal picture is by Stefeno Erardi. 
This' church is much frequented on Tuesdays, espe- 
cially m Leirf^ and is* held in high esteem by seamen*. 



233 

Less than a mile distant is Zabbar Gate pro- 
tected by a lunette. An infantry detachment is 
quartered at this gate upon which is a bust of the 
Grand Master Nicholas Cotoner with the date 1675. 
The inscription below the bust ends somewhat as 

follows: 

On the gate his name, 

In the city, world, his fame. 

We re-enter the Cotonera Lines, and return to 
Valletta. 



234 



CHAPTER III. 

GOZO AND COMINO. 

GOZO, our sister island is decidedly greener than 
the mass of heated stones commonly styled 
Malta. Some shooting is occasionally to be had 
there, it can boast of noble cliffs, and of some relics 
of remote antiquity, and it has occasionally been 
selected as the very place to spend a honey-moon, 

Gozo may be reached from Valletta by an 
omnibus to Marfa starting daily at 7. 0. a. m. from 
Saliba's stables in the Strada Mercanti. From Marfa 
a ferry boat crosses to Migiarro in Gozo. Fare from 
Valletta to Migiarro 2*. Those who prefer a voy- 
age varying in length from two to six hours may 
take passage in one of the sailing craft which ply 
between the islands. Fare about 1*. For a descrip- 
tion of the Overland Route to Gozo see Part III. 
Chaps. 1 and 2. 

Midway between Malta and Gozo which are 
separated by the straits of Flieghi is 

THE ISLAND OF COMINO. 

This small island, or rather islands, for though 
fragmentary it is yet further subdivided into Comino 
and Cominotto Vas anciently known as Hephoestia 
or Phoestia, that is the island of Hephoestos or Vul- 
can, and Cluverius speaks of it under the name of 
Lampas or "the Lamp/ 1 Its present name seems 
to be an Arabic corruption of the Greek word "X>- 



235 

meni" which means "adjacent." Its length from 
N. E. to 8. W. is two miles, its breadth one mile, 
and its circumference abont five miles. The channel 
to the west is called the Passage of Gozo, and that 
to the east the Passage of Malta. Both are good 
and safe, with from twelve to thirty fathoms water 
and a sandy bottom. The straits of Flieghi with 
the islands of Gomino and Cominotto have been 
depressed by geological disturbances to a depth of 
about 400 feet which has brought the marl into 
juxtaposition with the crystalline limestone. Com* 
mino is partially cultivated and is famous for water- 
melons. Babbits are plentiful and the pheasant was 
formerly to be met with, but is now rare or extinct. 
In the middle ages Comino was a lair of Saracens, 
and in order to deprive the enemy of this retreat, 
the Grand Master A. Wignacourt in the year 1618 
ordered the erection of a tower which is still stand- 
ing. The architect was Vittorio Cassar, the son of 
the celebrated Oerolamo Cassar. The profits derived 
from the cultivation of oats on this island were 
formerly applied in accordance with a Decree of 
Council passed in 1618 to the maintenance of this 
fort, and to the general expenses of government. 
King Alfonso at the request of the University of 
Malta imposed in 1419 a duty upon wine for the 
defence of Comino. An ancient tomb and leader 
pipes found here from time to time together wit> 
remains of buildings and of a church dedicated t« 
St. Nicholas, seem to prove that ftiis island had 
formerly more than its present number of thirty in* 
habitants. A very ancient chapel dedicated to thft 
B.V.Mary desecrated in 1667 and restored in 171 1 
stands near the bay of the same, name, and the?* 



236 

are also a large government house, and a few peas- 
ants' dwellings. The island may be easily reached 
by boat from Migiarro in Gozo. It possesses several 
lovely oaves, some of which can be entered in a 
boat, and several cliffs on the southern shore re- 
semble at a distance the figures t»f animals. Still 
we hesitate to endorse the sentiments of Giovanni 
Fratta who in the 14th Canto of the Malteide sings 
the praises of Comino as being 

4 

"An ample* rich, and lovely land." 



The Bay of Migiarro the name of which means 
"the carting place," is the principal commercial 
port in Gozo. Tho Grand Master Garzes erected a 
tower for its defence, some remains of which are 
still visible upon the heights, but the guns lie 
buried in the beach below, loved by bathers for 
its firm hard sand; The cliff of Ras efc Taffal 
150 feet * in height is crowned 7 by Port Cham- 
bray which was captured by the French in 1798, only 
to be again surrendered ere long. Like many of 
the other forts in Malta and Gozo, it owes its 
existence to the liberality of one of the members 
of the Order of St. John 5 . It was commenced in 
1749 by the Bailiff Francesco de Chambray, a 
Norman knight, who expended a great deal of money 
upon it. He died whilst the works were in pro- 
gress but left one fifth of his estate to ensure 
their completion. Even this proved insufficient, 
and the Order made up the deficiency, calling the 
stronghold "Fort Chambray/' If you have any regard 



237 

for personal beauty, we will leave Migiarro at onee, 
for, as the Maltese policeman . on duty at the land- 
ing place remarks, there are "plenty of mosqui- 
toes on this station." But it is worth while, if 
yon belong to the paohydermata, have as little 
sensibility as a* rhinoceros or an alligator, and 
have ruined your complexion (if you ever pos- 
sessed one) in early youth, to linger at Migiarro 
to examine the baskets of fish brought in by the 
boats. All I know . is that Mr; Frank Buckland 
would be ready, desirous, and eager to let sandflies 
and mosquitoes do their worst, if only he might 
watch the ever-changing hues and multiform phases 
of finny life here to be seen in abundance. But 
our car is waiting. Our triumphal chariot is drawn 
by a mule, and can boast of only a couple of wheels. 
Our "Joe" takes his seat beneath the white awn- 
ing which shields us from the sun, and up the 
long hill we go. Every native of Malta is address- 
ed as "Joe," by Thomas Atkins, even as West 
Indian negroes one and all answer to * the appel- 
lation of " Jim." For three miles we drive between 
low stone walls, getting lovely glimpses of the Straits 
of Flieghi, which look, from our point of view, 
more like one of those fair lakes which nestle amid 
the hills of Cumberland or Wales. The fields are 
well cultivated, but what skulls the population of 
Gozo must be possessed oft Any ordinary English- 
man would infallibly suffer from sunstroke if he were 
to attempt to do half a day's wdrk where these 
patient, enduring, sun-browned, and it is to be 
feared miserably under-paid peasants, toil uncomplain- 
ingly month after month. What a pace we are 
going at! "Joe" and his mule are evidently in 



238 

haste to get home, and the stone walls fly past us 
at a marvellous rate. 

Ere long we breast a slope, and enter Babato 
the quiet old world capital of Gozo. Lace making 
is the staple occupation of its inhabitants, and from 
every open door you hear the ceaseless clicking of 
the bobbins, which fly quickly to and fro, apparently 
bent upon solving the problem of perpetual motion. 
Very eastern are the faces of the workers, very 
lustrous are their eyes, and very guttural is their 
speech, for here in Gozo the language of the peo- 
ple is far more akin to the original Arabic, than 
is the dialect in common use in Malta. In Roman 
days Gozo was a municipality, and in the last cen- 
tury the attacks of the Algerine pirates were so 
fierce and frequent, that no Gozitan dared remain 
in the open country after sunset. Mais nous Ati* 
glais avons chang6 tout cela. There are plenty of flies 
and mosquitoes at Babato, and if you kill one all 
his acquaintances are certain to attend the funeral. 
A comfortable little hotel, the " Imperial " by name, 
receives the traveller within its hospitable doors, and 
Peppina, the hostess, is one of the most motherly 
natives of these islands that I have as yet discov- 
ered. Take up that universally to be found volume, 
" The Visitors' Book/* and there shall you read alike 
in prose and rhyme the praises of Peppina. Suf- 
fice it to say that you will be well lodged and fed, 
and, a word in your ear! for most moderate cost, 
at this hotel. * There is also the Calypso Hotel nearly 
opposite the " Imperial." 

Wheat sufficient for home consumption is grown 
in Gozo, .barley and cotton are exported, fruit and 
vegetables are sent to Malta, as are also grapes, 



239 

honey, poultry, fish, and apples, as well as small 
and large cheeses, made from the milk of the long- 
legged, long-necked sheep which are everywhere to 
be seen. In their funeral ceremonies the Gozitans 
resemble Eastern nations, and the male survivors 
sometimes allow their hair to remain uncut for several 
months after the death of a relative. But come 
along, let us climb to the summit of the citadel! 
What a grand view we have from these half-ruined 
and crumbling battlements. Almost all Gozo and 
half the island of Malta lie stretched at our feet. 
This must have been a formidable stronghold in by- 
gone days of chivalry, but now the works are crumb- 
ling piece-meal. They are utterly useless, being 
commanded by high ground on several sides. This 
old citadel of Babato will, however, always have an 
interest for Englishmen, for in 1651, after an un- 
successful attempt upon Malta, Sinam Pasha cruelly 
ravaged Gozo. Gelatian de Sessa the Governor made 
but a feeble defence, leaving the inhabitants to pro- 
tect themselves. An English knight put himself at 
their head, until a shot from the Turkish batteries 
struck him down, and Gozo was taken, the Gover- 
nor and 6,000 captives being carried into hopeless 
slavery. Close to the Augustinian convent are a 
number of monumental stones which the Gozitans 
gravely assure you were erected in memory of a 
number of African bishops, who died in the island 
on their way to attend a general council. Horror 
of horrors, what would be the result, if an attack 
of measles were to break out amongst the Lords 
Spiritual on their way to some Pan Anglican synod? 
The walk from Babato to the lighthouse at 



240 

Guirdan is very pleasant, and the view over sea and 
land is very fine. 

But we have lingered long enough at Babato. 
We must take a hasty glance at the Giants' Tower. 
Bidding farewell to Peppina, we again mount a 
country car and off we go. The pace is, if possible, 
swifter than before, for our road lies down hill and 
Jehu is reckless. At length we slacken speed and 
begin to climb a long hill, at the summit of which 
is the Giants' Tower. Permission to visit it must 
be obtained either from the owner (24 Strada Mer- 
canti Valletta, Malta) or from his agent at Babato. 
It is always freely given, but application must be 
made, or admission will be refused by the tenant. 
A short walk brings us to this remarkable ruin, which 
was formerly the Temple of Astarte, the Phoenician 
Venus. We shall quote Dr. Badger: " The enclosure 
is of a circular form, and measures twenty five paces 
in diameter. It is formed by a wall, of enormous 
masses of rock, piled up one upon another, without 
mortar or cement. It is entered by two massive 
doorways, constructed of four stones 18 feet high 
and five feet wide. These lead into separate ranges 
of rooms, each range laid out in the same order, and 
only differing in extept. At the . extremity of the 
building, opposite the entrance is a semi-circular area, 
the floor of which rises higher than any other part, 
and is paved at the threshold with very large hewn 
stones.". These are pitted with Phoenician sacred marks. 
"Besides these,* there : are two oblong chambers in 
each range, which cross the area -at right angles, and 
which are separated by a thipk wall, except along 
the nave, which is left open, and forms a second 
entrance into the inner room. There exist also the 



241 

remains of an oven, and a conical stone about 2£ 
feet in height and one foot in diameter, which was 
doubtless one of the deities of the temple. "To 
the right of the second apartment is a shallow cir- 
cular concavity imbedded in the floor, with a raised 
rim resembling those which are met with in the 
Catacombs of CittA Vecchia. In the doorways are 
holes for bolts and loops cut in the stone as fas- 
tenings for the ropes with which victims were bound. 
The figure of a serpent is roughly carved on a 
stone close by the entrance of the second apartment 
of the smaller temple." Leaving this most interest- 
ing relic of Phoenician idolatry with reluctance, we 
have the village of Nadur on our left hand, and learn 
that from thence come most of the apples with 
which Malta and Gozo are supplied. On reaching 
the little port of Migiarro once more, we are for- 
tunate enough to meet with a friend who has run 
down in one of the "Mosquito Fleet," as the Royal Mal- 
ta Yacht Squadron is often styled. Not much persua- 
sion is necessary on his part to induce us to circum- 
navigate Gozo, and ere long we are standing out 
of the Bay of Migiarro with a fresh breeze. There 
is a coral fishery on this coast and soon the Bay 
of Shlendi opens out from which a ravine stretches 
inland for a mile. Cape Bombardo towers high in 
air, and we must not hug the iron-bound shore 
too closely. The Bays of Shlendi and Duejra offer 
opportunities for a hostile landing, bat are of course 
guarded by fortifications. In the Bay of Duejra rises 
the General's Rock, about 150 feet from the shore on 
which grows the famous Fungus Melitensis formerly 
sent by the Grand Master to crowned heads. It grows 
to* the height of five inches and blossoms in April 
16 



242 

or May. When fresh it is of a dark red colour 
and rather soft, bat when dried it is nearly black 
and becomes hard and solid. It was formerly mnch 
used in the cure of dysentery, haemorrhage, and 
cutaneous diseases, also of syphilis, when given in 
broth or wine. A similar fungus is found at Tunis, 
and near Trapani. Also in the islands of Lampe- 
dusa, Favigliana and Bonciglio, on the coasts of 
Leghorn, and in the neighbourhood of Pisa, and 
some say, also in Jamaica. 

Tieka Zerka or the " Azure Window " near the 
General's Bock is a great curiosity easily accessible 
from Babato. It is a natural arch, the grandeur 
of which must be seen to be appreciated. 

As we round Gape Demetri the breeze freshens 
and ere long we are abreast of the lighthouse at 
Guirdan which stands 400 feet above the sea level 
and is visible at a distance of 24 miles. It shows 
a revolving light once every minute. From this 
point news of the coming of steamers is telegraphed 
to Valletta, giving timely warning to traders and 
friends alike. Marsa el Forn, from which a remark- 
ably good road leads to Babato through a highly 
cultivated district, is a favourite summer resort. 
There is a safe anchorage here, as well as abundant 
water. If the position were not so isolated, Marsa el 
Forn would have been the metropolis of the island, 
as the Council of the Order of St. John had al- 
most determined to remove the city to this spot. 
As we come abreast of Bas el Gala the eastern ex- 
tremity of Gozo, we go under the stern of a P. 
and O. steamer. We wish her a prosperous voyage, 
as she departs homeward bound, whilst, running 



243 

before a favouring breeze, we are not long in reach- 
ing Valletta, having thoroughly enjoyed our visit 
to Gozo. 

The Author will be much obliged for fuller 
information or suggestions for the improvement and 
correction of this Guide. 



» 



ADDENDA. 



In April 1880 the Word Rate Tariff composed 
of the rate applicable to the actual number of words, 
plus an additional rate or grundtax of five words 
per telegram was adopted by the Telegraph Com- 
panies. A telegram of eleven words to Great Brit- 
ain costs 5s. 6d. plus the initial or grundtax of 2*. 
6d., or a total of 8s. Bates for other places may 
be ascertained on application at the various tele* 
graph offices (p. 56.). 

Attached to the Public Library is a small Mus- 
eum originated by De Rohan, and arranged dur- 
ing the rule of Sir W. Reid which is well worthy 
of a visit. Description is needless as an admirable 
catalogue by Dr. Vassallo is lent to visitors on ap- 
plication. Admission free during the hours that the 
Library is open. This Museum deserves to be more 
known and appreciated than it is at present. 

The price of Boxes at the Opera per month 
varies from £1 to £5. 

The Revd W. K. R. Bedford says " I was for- 
tunate enough to find in the Academy at Marseilles 
the design of the tapestry in the Council Chamber, 
Valletta. It is by Desportes, and is rendered with 
*onderfal faithfulness in the tapestry .» (See p. 96.) 



246 

On April 23rd 1880 a new Tariff for Carriages 
came into operation. 
Fares by time at a speed of five miles an hour. 

One horse carriage for not more than 15 min- 
utes 6d. Under half an hour Is. Under one hour 
Is. 6d. For every quarter of an hour beyond the 
first hour 4d. 

Two horse carriages a fare and a half. 

Fares by distance. — One horse carriage for any 
distance not exceeding half a mile 3d. Not exceed- 
ing one mile 6c?. For every half mile beyond the 
first mile 2d. 

Two horse carriages for one-mile la. For every 
half mile beyond the first mile 6d. 

Between one hour after sunset and one hour 
before sunrise these fares are increased one half. 

Fares from one place to another within Val- 
letta, Floriana, Sliema, or St. Julian's 3d. 

From Valletta to Floriana 4*d. 

From Valletta to the San Giuseppe Road, Pieta, 
Misida, or Ta Braxia Cemetery lOd. To Casal Paola, 
the Addolorata Cemetery, or to Birohircara, Curmi, 
Tarxien, Luca, and Sliema Is. 2d. To Zabbar, Zei- 
tun, Gudia, Asciach, Zebbug, Balzan, Attard, Lia, 
or St. Julian's Is. 8d. To Musta, Naxaro, Gargur, 
Siggieui, and Pembroke Camp 2s. To Cittd Vecchia, 
Rabato, Zurrico, and Crendi 2s. Qd. To the Boschetto 
or Inquisitor's Palace 3s. To Gebel Kim and Mnaidra, 
or St. Paul's Bay 4*. From Sliema to St. Julian's 
hd. From Sliema to Pembroke Camp 8d. From 
Valletta to Cbspicua, Seuglea, or Vittoriosa Is. 8d. 

Some say that the two Baraccas (p.p. 118, 135.) 
were unroofed in consequence of the Priests' Re- 



247 

volution in 1775. Others state that the French gar- 
rison being in want of firewood daring the two 
years' siege, reduced these buildings to their pre- 
sent condition. 

The Turkish Fleet in 1565 did not assemble 
in the port of Migiarro in Gozo, but in that of 
Gineyna tal Migiarro in Malta (p. 201). 

Sig. Bosario Denaro has lately been appointed 
Agent for the Florio and Bubattino Lines of Steam- 
ers (p. 58.). Office, No. 35 Marina. Weekly de- 
partures for Tunis. For Tripoli direct every Wed- 
nesday. 

The Author's thanks are due to Major Ewing, 
Staff Paymaster, for his kind correction of a portion of 
the proof sheets. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Please, read Page 7, line 6, 50 leagues. 

23, and p. 14 line 1, Marsa Scirocco. 
3, omit the word Esq. 

16, 173 d. 

17, from £1 to £5. For one night 
from 6s. 3d. to £1. 

16, Blessed. 

9, De Rohan. 
34, guests. 
16, Manse. 
14, Gerosolmitano. 

8, once again. 

2, fitting. 
25, roofed. In 1715. 
32, Fencible Artillery and JRoman 
Catholic. 

2, Each Auberge formerly had. 

3, this Auberge. 
5, rebuilt, enlarged, and beautified. 

28, punishments. 

13, Town Hall. 

31, a Maltese Capuchin Friar. 

31, large. 

3, fromlOd. 
20, St. Omobono. 

2, and p. 143 line 5, Pavilion. 

4, Wignacourt and Bouverie Aque- 
ducts. 

18, sleeping accomodation. 
20, Convent. 
11, close by. 
20, 15,000 persons. 

4, announced. 
1, was. 



99 


11, 


99 


99 


47, 


» 


>> 


58, 


J, 


99 


76, 


» 


V 


84, 


99 


» 


90, 


» 


4 
99 


1 99, 


•9 


99 


106, 


99 


» 


108, 


» 


>> 


115, 


» 


99 


118, 


99 


99 


118, 


99 


»>. 


120, 


99 


99 


122, 


99 


99 


122, 


99 


99 


123, 


»J 


» 


123, 


» 


>> 


124, 


>* 


99 


124. 


99 


99 


127, 


99 


99 


130, 


99 


99 


133, 


>J 


» 


141, 


99 


» 


141, 


99 


» 


143, 


,J 


99 


144, 


99 


M 


159, 


99 


99 


162, 


99 


99 


171, 


99 


9i 


188, 


J0 

99 



INDEX. 



Dedication and Preface p. 3 

PART FIRST. 
CHAPTER I. 

The Maltese Islands, — Situation. Bays and Inlets. Popula- 
tion. Wages. Food. Greatest elevation of the islands. Ap- 
pearance from the sea. The ancient Athalantis. Evidences of 
diminution of area 7 

CHAPTER II. 

Historical Outline. — Malta in the days of the Giants. The 
Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, and Romans. Arab Rule. 
Arrival of Count Roger. French and German Sovereigns. The 
Knights of St. John and the Great Siege. Decay of the Order. 
Malta surrenders to Buonaparte. Capitulation of General Vau- 
bois. English Governors in Malta. 12 

List of Grand Masters 50 

PART SECOND. 

CHAPTER I. 

The City of Valletta. — Situation of Valletta, Foundation 
of the city. Streets of stairs. Arrangement of streets. Hou- 
se^ Lodgings and Hotels. Boat and Carriage fares. Postal in- 



252 

formation. Telegraph Companies. Medical Men, and Mer- 
chants. Lines of Steamers, and Steam Ship Agents. Consuls. 
Weights and Measures 51 

CHAPTER II. 

Climate. — Mild in winter. Prevailing winds. Gregale and 
Scirocco. Sultry in summer. Winter attractions for in- 

V till CIS . • • • ... t ** •*. ••• • « « • « « • • • Dv 

CHAPTER III. 

The Months in Malta. — ,. ... 64 

CHAPTER IV. 

Streets and Buildings. — Porta Reale. Strada Reale. Opera 
House. Union Club. Church of St. John. Courts of Justice. 
Public Library. Governor's Palace. St. George's Square. The 
Borsa, and Fort St. Elmo. Strada Stretta, the old duelling 
ground. Strada Forni. Auberge de France, the Bakery, and 
the Auberge de Baviere. Strada Zecca and the Mint. St. 
Paul's Church, and the Auberge d' Aragon. Marsamuscetto 
Steps and neighbourhood. Walk round the ramparts. ... 74 

CHAPTER V. 

Stkeets and Buildings (Continued). — St. James' Cavalier, 
and the Auberge d'ltalia. Upper Baracca, Church and Garden. 
View from Upper Baracca. Churches of Vittoria, and Sta 
Caterina d'Italia % \uberge d'ltalia, Palazzo Parisio, and Church 
of S. Giacomo. The Castellania, and Post Office. Monte di 
Pieta, and Market. Church of Our Lady of Damascus. Jesuits' 
Church, University, and Lyceum. The Dominican and Anime 
Purganti Churches. Military Hospital, and the Camerata. Com- 



253 

etery, Nibbia Church, Hospital for Incurables, and Orphan 
Asylum. Strada S. Paolo, and the Church of St. Paul Ship- 
wrecked. Churches of the Minori Osservanti, S. Eocco, and St. 
Ursola. Old Slave Prison, and the Lower Baracca. Strada Lev- 
ante, and the Santa Barbara Bastion. The Sultan's Garden, 
JJix Mangiare Stairs, Barriera, and Church of Sta Maria di 
Jaesse. The Mina Lascaris, Custom House, and Marina. 116 

CHAPTER VI. 

Flomana. — The Suburb of Vilhena. Gates and Fortifications. 
The Maglio and Pavilion. Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. St. 
Francis 1 Barracks, Princess Theatre, and Capuchin Convent. 
Wignacourt and Bouverie Aqueducts. Churches of Sarria, 
and St. Public The Argotti Garden, Casa di Manresa, and 
Central Civil Hospital. Floriana Barracks, Charitable Institu- 
tions, and English Cemeteries. Sa Maison and its Becreation 
vtiounci. ... • ? • •<• *•• ••* ••* ... a * x 

CHAPTER VII. 

Pbmbeokb Camp, St. Jtxuan's, and Sliema. — The Wimble- 
don of Malta. St. Julian's Bay, and the Forrest Hospital. Foug- 
asses. Jesuit College. The Forgotten Church. Boat and 
Carriage fares. Cure for fever. Sliema. Officers' Bathing 
House, and Fort Tigne\ Churches of Sliema. Fort Manoel and 
its island. The Lazaretto, Misida, and Hydraulic Dock. Pieta 
audits Cemeteries. ... ... ... ... ... 150 

CHAPTER VIII. # 

The Mabsa and Btjbmola. — Out of Porte des Bombes. Porto 
Nuovo. The Marsa and the Race Course. Corradino, its for- 
tifications and prisons. The French Creek and the Naval 
Canteen. Burmola, its fortifications and gates* The Goto- 



254 

nera Hospital. Churches and Convents. The Dockyard and 
Manna. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 162 

CHAPTER IX. 

Senglea, Vittobiosa and Fokt Ricasoli. — Origin of Senglea. 
Churches and Convents. H. M. S. Hibernia, Fort St. Angelo, 
and the Temple of Juno. The Victualling Yard, Slave Prison, 
and Naval Bakery. The Old Palaoe and Hospital. Churches 
and Convents. San Lorenzo. Soldiers' Institute. Column of 
Victory. Inquisitor's and Bishop's Palaces. La Valletta's Ob- 
servatory. Salvadore Gate, and Calcara Bay. Naval Ceme- 
tery and Hospital. Rinella Bay and Fort Bicasoli. ... 173 

PART THIRD. 

CHAPTER I. 

Bound the Coast. — Naval Kifle Bange and Grazia Tower. 
Geological Formations. Marsa Scala, S. Tommaso Bay, and 
Delimara. Marsa Scirocco, and St. Lucian's Tower. Fossae, 
Mel carte's Temple, and the Cave of Darkness. Bir Zebbugia 
and its fortifications. Benghisa and Hassan's Cave. The 
Southern Shore. Fauara and Filfla. Buts at Fom-er-Bieh. 
Marfa. Melleha, its church and bay. Palace of Selmoon. St 
Paul's Bay and Island. Shipwreck of St. Paul. Neighbour- 
hood of the Bay. Saline Bay, Ghallis Bock, Maddalena Bay, 
and Casal Gargur 187 

CHAPTER II. 

Countey ExcuRstoNs.— Boutb I. — To and from St. Paul's 
Bay. — The San Giuseppe Road. Villages of Curmi, Birchir- 
cara, Lia, and Nasciar. Syndics and Villages. The "Great 
Fault/' The Valley of Honey. St. Paul el Milki. Mus- 
ta Church. Palace and Gardens of Sant' Antonio, ... 216 



255 

Eoittb II — Citta Vecchia and Neighbourhood. — Casal Attard 
and the Lunatic Asylum. Citta. Vecchia, its Sanatorium and 
Cathedral. St. Paul's Grotto and the Catacombs. Bingemma, 
Nadur, and Imtarfa. Mount Verdala and the Boschetto. The 
Inquisitor's Palace. Casals Siggieui and Zebbug. ... 220 

Eoutb III. — The Southern and Eastern Villages. — Casals Luca, 
Micabiba, and Crendi. The Macluba. Hagiar Ehem. Casals 
Zurrico, Safi, and Chircop. Casal Zeitun and its Procession. 
Casals Tarxien, Paola, and Zabbar 228 

Gozo and Comino. — 234 

Addenda. ... ... ... ••• ... ... 245 

Corrigenda. ... ... ... ... ... ... 249 

IuUva. ... «•• ... •■* ... ... ... £i*JJL 



THE END. 



I. 



a 





Jjorfhwr k 




jj 



GIBRALTAR SHERRY 

SHIPPERS, 

QIBBALTAH,. 

Branches: 
MALTA, and 21, Water Lane, LONDON. 

o- 

SOLE PROPRIETORS AND SHIPPERS OF 

THE CELEBRATED 

"GIBRALTAR SHERRY" 

"FRONTERA" 

The finest Natural Pale Dry Sherry ever produced 

in Spain. — Free from acidity and heat, 

and with fine dietetic qualities. 

PRICE FREE ON BOARD, GIBRALTAR, 
£14 per Qr. Cask of 13 doz. 
£ 7 „ 10 per Octave of 6^ doz. 
28/- per doz. bottles duty paid*in Malta. 

ALSO SHIPPERS OF THE CELEBRATED GIBRALTAR 



tt 



MANZANILLA" 



(Bee Next Page.) 



II. 



NAYAL JM MILITARY 



383, STBADA REALE, 






Every description of Provisions, Groceries, Wines, 
Spirits and Beers, can be obtained at about 

10 per cent above the prices published 
by the Service Co-operative Stores in London. 
The difference in price is necessary to cover Pack- 
ing, Shipping, and Freight Charges, which at the 
lowest estimate amount to about 14 per cent. All 
Goods Guaranteed of best quality and sold at En- 
glish weight 16 oz. to the lb., the Maltese lb. having 
only 14 oz. 

N. B.— MILITARY AND NAVAL CANTEENS, 
HOSPITALS, ETC., SUPPLIED. 



W. B. WHITTINGHAM & Co" 

Wholesale and Export 

BOOKSELLERS k PUBLISHERS, 

ACCOUNT BOOK MAKERS, 

l», $mmml, ft L# |ifc*ft 

LITHOGRAPHERS & ENGRAVERS. 



NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS 

Despatched with regularity to any 
part of the World. 



ESTIMATES FOR PRINTING 

Catalogues, 

Pamphlets, Trade Circulars, 

and books 

IFIR/OIMIIFTIjTr SUPPLIED, 



Printing Works: 4, White Hart Court, 
Bishopsgate Church. 



91, GRACECHURCH STREET, LONDON. 



IV. 



BY APPOINTMENT TO 
H. R. H. THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH. 





BOOKSELLER. 
STATIONER, & PRINTER, 

28, Strada San Giovanni, 
VALLETTA -MALTA. 



C. CARUANA, 

eaocER, 

AND 

7 

31 & 32, Strada Nuova, Marina, 
VALLETTA— MALTA. 



i 



Ship Supplier, Dead and Live Stock, 
Orders executed on the shortest notice. 
Bills on London Gashed 
at the Lowest Bate of Exchange. • 



V. 

TO PASSENGERS, CAPTAINS, & OFFICERS 
OF VESSELS CALLING AT MALTA. 



THE WINDSOR CASTLE 

HOTEL, 

REFRESHMENT ROOMS, 

TEA GARDENS, 

AND MUSEUM OF CURIOSITIES 

IS SITUATE 

22, Strada Zaccaria, 

which is directly opposite the principal 
entrance to St. John's Church. 

][4t^ mtn ^ Jpmi^d It all I(Mtt?5, 

Ale, Stout, Wines, Spirits, and Liqueurs of 

finest quality only. 

AMERICAN FANCY DRINKS. 

CLEANLINESS, COMFORT,, AND 

MODERATE CHARGES. 
Edward Harris, Proprietor, 

»Late of London, Melbourne, & New York. 



VI. 










h 



[Late G. Mtnn] 

BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER, 

248, Strada Re ale. 



A LARGE ASSORTMENT OF PLAIN 
AND FANCY STATIONERY. 



||auc!|Ttite Jditton 4 



j#$t luthoqa. 



PERFUMERY, FANCY GOODS, CUTLERY, 
TOILET SOAPS, BRUSHES & COMBS. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC YIEWS, 

Orders takeii for Periodicals, Newspapers, &c. 

ritttittjj uuA |Uttdituj» 

CRICKETING WAREHOUSE.— FENCING 
GLOVES, BALLS, GAMES, &o. &c. &©. 





♦ Smept, 



VII. 



-EzL .A. -L 



nutf 





HATTER, 

tdmtt* & 




®lmx. 



308 & 309 STRADA-REALE, MALTA. 

Exactly Opposite the Opera House. 

Branch of the well known firm of 20 & 21 Burlington 
Arcade, London. Brighton, Aldershot, Sandhurst, &c. 

An order given at this establishment will be 
completed and delivered to any address in England 
before arrival of steamers. 

PARCELS FORWARDED TO ENGLAND 

At One Shilling per cubic foot or under. 

Baggage, Oranges, &c, forwarded to any 

address in England or the Colonies. 

QQOQS OBTAINABLE 

from all the London Co-operative Stores at 2h 

per oent advance on their Price Lists. 

Freight not included. 

Ten per Cent Discount Allowed fob Cash, 

and Fifteen per Cent to Members of Co-operative Stor- 
es and Subscribers to H. RTRUEFITTS Toilet Club. 
Agency transactions, attendances, and subscriptions 
excepted. 



VIII. 



M. A, CROCKFORD & SON, 

silk: mercers, 

MILLINERS, 

3DI^ESS2s^:^.ICER;S, 

UPHOLSTERERS, CABINET MAKERS, 

AND 

AGENTS FOR MAPPIN BROTHERS' 
CELEBRATED CUTLERY 

AND 

ELECTRO PLATED GOODS. 

257, 258, Strada Reale, and 

28, STRADA ST. LUCIA, 

AND 

86, STRADA PONENTE, 
Valletta-Malta. 



IX. 



HOSKIN & CO. 




;!XL& 




illmm <& ites-mata, 



FANCY GOODS, UNDER CLOTHING, &c. 

292d, Strada Reale, 

Valletta = Malta. 



HOSKIN & CO. 

WMmu & mm 



GHOCKBS, 

WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS, 

288, Strada Reale, 



Valletta, = Malta,. 

BILLS CASHED. 



BY AfMltJTMENT TO H. R. H. THE MIME 6F WALE8. 



p^*W-^^M*p*^*-^q 



V. MARICH & CO 

TOIB^OCOILTISTiS 
44, Palace Square, 

MALTA. 

Established A. D. 1838. 

ALSO REFRESHMENTS TO BS HAD. 



F. BLACKLEY, 

ENGLISH 

BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER, 

CONFECTIONER, &C. 

By Appointment to H. R. H. the Duke 

of Edinburgh. 

No, 21 Strada Reale, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 

ALLSOPS'S & BASS'S ALBS OK DRAUGHT. . 



xu 




: ^S:'*t&&:*z 



r *mm 



GENUINE GUINNESS' STOUT 

AND 

BASS' ALE, 

In Bottles at the usual low prices ; 

Viz: Stout at 3$. and 6s. per dozen. 
Ale at 4s. and 7s. 6d. per do. 

NOW IN EXCELLENT CONDITION AT 

R. KIND'S, 

287, Strada Reale, Valletta. 



Orders left at the above Dep6t, will 
receive prompt and careful attention. Car- 
riage Free. 



XII. 



LONDON STUDIO 



Malta. 



DAVISON & CIAMTAR PREZIOSI 

PHO TO OR A PHERS. 

PALACE SQUARE ENTRANCE 

133 Strada Teatro, and 
134 Strada Stretta. 



VIEWS OF MALTA. 



This is the only House in Malta employing 
a Complete Staff of London Artists where 
every description of work is executed the 
same as in London, from the delicate Min- 
iature on ivory, to the beautiful life size 
in Monochrome, Oil or Water Colour. On 
Carbon, — Opal — Ivory — Paper — Canvas &c. 
Specimens to be seen at the 

SHOW ROOMS. 



XIII. 




A. DIACONO 












TAILOR & OUTFITTER 

LADIES' piNG HABITS. 

GREAT STOCK OF GLOTHINQ &c 

ats, Caps, f rarfs, and other 
rticles f uppliri 





295, A 296, STMDA KKALE, 

Between the Union Club and the Opera House 

. Valletta, - Malta. 



XIV. 

E. N. ARCHER, 

303/7, 8TR. REALE, & 46/8, 8TR. MEZZODI, 

VALLETTA- MALTA. 

Opposite the New Opera House. 

Draper, Hosier, and Haberdasher, 
MILLINER, 

GRESS & MAHTLE MAKER 

FAMILY MOURNING, 
TOY & CRICKET WAREHOUSE, 

ladies' and children's boot and shoe depot, 
ladies' and gentlemen's outfitting, 

gloves, perfumery, corset8, etc. 
bills and bank notes exchanged. 



SOLE AGENT FOR THE UNDERSIGNED. 

Hink's Patent Triple Action Extinguisher 

Duplex Lamps. 

™ - bavarian imm mm, 

In Wood and Bottles. 

INDIAN CO-OPERATIVE AGENCY. 

Horniinan's Pare Tea. 
Prof: Hermann's Vermin Destroyer. 



crcrxvrxss Sc soars, ^POSwnsMOTrrH:, 
General Camera and Forwarding Agent*. 



XV. 



CURTISS & SONS 

RAILWAY & SHIPPING AGENTS 

BBOAD STREET 

PORTSMOUTH. 



■o- 



AGENTS FOB 

THE UNION S. S. CO. ROYAL 

MAIL STEAMERS. 

ALLAN LINE OF AMERICAN STEAMERS. 

LONDON BRIGHTON & SOUTH COAST AND MIDLAND 

RAILWAY COMPANIES. 



OFFICERS BAGGAGE, ETC. WAREHOUSED, SHIPPED, 

CLEARED AND FORWARDED 

TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD. 



-A-Q-EZSTTS -A-BIRO-A-ID; 
MADDEN & Co. — Elphimtone Circle, Bombay. 

J. SACCONE, — Gibraltar. 
E. N. ARCHER,— Str. Beale, Valletta-Malta. 



XVI. 



JOSEPH /ZZOPARDI & Co. 

' JJMjr 1$kwMm, 

AND GENERAL AGENTS. 

PROVISIONS, BONDED AND SHIP STORES 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

CANVAS, HEMP, AND MANILLA MOPE 

OF ALL SIZES. 

WIBE RIGGIHG, && 

DIVER and Diving Apparatus always ready 
for use on immediate demand, 
at Moderate Charges. 



^GENTS FOR THE 

BRITISH SHIP-MASTERS' & OFFICERS' PROTECTION 

S O CI ET Y, 

SUNDERLAND 



No. 12, MARINA, close to the Custom House 

MALTA. 



XVII, 





EXCURSIONS, TOURS, 

t 
AND 

GENERAL TRAVELLING ARRANGEMENTS.. 



THOMAS COOK & SON, 



Pioneers, Inaugurates,' and Promoters of the princi- 
pal systems of Tours established in Great Britain and 
Ireland, and on the Continent of Europe, are now giving 
increased attention to Ordinary VTr a veiling Arrangements, 
with a view to rendering them as easy, practicable, and 
economical as circumstances will allow. During 38 years 
more than six millions of travellers have visited near and 
distant places under their arrangements; and their system 
of Tickets now provides for visiting the chief points of 
interest in the Four Quarters of the Globe. 

Owing to the large number of officers of the Army 
and Navy and others who are continually travelling to and 
from Malta and ajl parts of the Uuivei!Be Messrs. Cook 
A Sons have opened an office at 280, Strada Reale, Val- 
letta, for giving information and issuing^ tickets by any 
route to all parts of Central Europe, the United States, 
Canada, Australia, &o. They have placed Mr. C. Aquilina 
in charge of the new office, who is well known in con- 
nection with their Egypt and Palestine business. 

Office opened on 1st July, 1880. 



XVIII. 






STEAM SHIP AGENTS 

MALTA, 

SOLE AGENTS FOR 

HARRIS' NAVIGATION GOALS, 

warn stock of the 

BEST WELSH, 

And North Country Coals always on hand. 
Steamers supplied on the shortest notice 
at very moderate prices. 

AGENTS FOB 

BEITISH INDIA STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY. 
Mesirs. MACGREGOR GOW & Co. London. 
The Moss Steam Ship Co. Liverpool. 
The Ocean Steam Ship Co. do. 
Messrs Lamport Holt. & Co. do. 



LONDON AGS NTS 

Messes Lambebt Brothers 

85 Gracechurch St. 
Messrs Henby Clarke & Co. 
17 Gbacechubch St. 



XIX 

ITALIAN POSTAL LINE 

OF STEAMERS OF I. &V.FL0RI0 (SCO. 

OF PALERMO. 

DEPARTURE FROM MALTA, 

EVERT MONDAY, THURSDAY, & SATURDAY, 

At 6 o'clock, p. m. 

For Italy &c. in Postal Service. 
Monday, For Syracuse, Catania, Messina, Naples, 

Genoa and Marseilles. Coincidence for the North Coast 
of Sicily, to Palermo, and for the Piraus, Smyrna, 
Salonica, Constantinople and Odessa. 

Thursday. For Syracuse, Catania, Messina, and 
Naples. Coincidence at Catania, for Taranto, Gallipoli, 
Brindisi, and ports of the Adriatic. 

Saturday (direct). For Messina and Naples, Leg- 
ghorn, Genoa, Nizza, and Marseilles. Coincidence at 
Messina, for Palermo and Tunis. 

On the direct voyages the fastest steamers 

(probably paddle) will be employed. 

For freight or passage apply to 

ROSARIO DENARO, Agent. 

No. 35 Fuori la Mina. 
FOR TUNIS- 
Taking goods and passengers for Susa, Monastier, Mehdia, 
Sfax, and Gerbi, Cagliari, Leghorn, Genoa, and Marseilles. 
Weekly Departures For Tripoli (Direct.) 
The Italian Steamer Sardegna, Captain Oanepa, will 
start for the above mentioned ports every Wednesday at 
3 p.m. precisely. 

Yor freight or passage apply to 

ROSARIO DENARO Agent. 
No. 35, Fuori la Mina. 



XX. 



O. F. GOLLCHER 

STEAM SHIP AGENT 



AND 



21, STRADA ZACCARIA, MALTA. 

The best Welsh, and Newcastle Coals always 

ready on Lighters. 

Agents in London: Messrs. Bubness & Sons, 

138, Leadenhall Street. 

Agent for the HALL LINE between Liverpool 

and Bombay, calling regularly at Malta. 

Also for the Anchor Line of Peninsular and 

Mediterranean First Glass Steam Packets. 

Communication 
between Glasgow, Liverpool, Gibraltar, Tunis, 

Malta, and Alexandria. 
F. HENDERSON AND COMPANY'S - 
Line of Steamers between London, Liverpool, 

and Rangoon. 

Royal Netherlands Steam Navigation Company. 

Communication between Holland and the East. 

Line of Steamers 
between London, the Levant, and the Black Sea. 

Steam Communication^ 
Between Malta <*nd Tunis. (Weekly departures.) 



XXI. 




Cunard Line 



■^ > * 



BURNS & MAC IVER'S 

FIRST GLASS SCREW STEAMERS 

BETWEEN 

Liverpool & Constantinople, 
Smyrna, & Alexandria, 

CALLING AT 

GIBRALTAR, 
MALTA, and SYR A. 

For rates of freight or pass- 
age apply to • 

CHAHLHS Um% 

Agent. 



XXII. 

MALTA 

IMPERIAL HOTEL 

VALLETTA 

91, Strada Santa Lucia, 

BY 

6. ELLUL. 



IMPERIAL HOTEL 



BY 

G. ELLUL. 

This Establishment is situated in the highest 
part of Sliema and commands an uninter- 
rupted view of Valletta, the sea and country. 
The apartments, suites and single, are more 
than usually lofty, well ventilated and elegantly 
furnished. c 

TABLE D' HOTE. 

E3 



XXIII. 




DUNSFORD'S CLARENCE 








254, Strada Reale, 

* 

tyattet,ta,= Malta,. 
ESTABLISHED 1824. 

For Families and Gentlemen. 

TABLE D'HOTE. 

WARM AND COLD $ATHS. 

MODERATE CHARGES. 

. F. DINNING PROPRIETOR. 



XXIV. 



GREAT BRITAIN HOTEL 

42, STRADA MEZZODI 

[Near the Opera House.) 



•0 — 



This First Class Family Hotel is situated 
in the best part of the Town. 

LARGE &, SMALL 

SUITES OF APARTMENTS 

AND BEDROOMS, 

Commanding a view of the Street. 

Visitors to Malta will find Home Comforts 

combined with Moderate Charges. 

EXCELLENT TABLE D'HOTE. 

WARM AND COLD BATHS. 

This Hotel which has the personal Superin- 
tendence of the Proprietor, 

(C. 'LAWRENCE) 

IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED BY 
ENGLISH FAMILIES. 




XXV, 




BY 



VINCENT Z AM MIT 

PRIVATE LDDttNBS 

OPPOSITE THE OLD OPERA. 

Strada Teatro Jfo. 74. 

Valletta, - SHalta,. 



HOTEL DANGLETERRE 

BY 

JOHN BELLUTI 

Strada Sta. Lucia. Entrance No. 34, Strada Stretta. 

Every accomodation for Families & Gentlemen 

visiting the island. 
Well Furnished Rooms. Excellent 
Table d' Hote. • 

(established 1856). 



XXVI. 



AN UNKNOWN POEM 
ON A WELL KNOWN SPOT, 



Now as the Sun gains height and strength, 

And days are stretching out their length, 

'Tis well to know some shelter'd spot, 

To cool our thirst when 'tis so hot. 

A shady place I would suggest, 

Where weary, parched, or "peckish" guest, 

May calm enjoy, 'mong trees and shrubbery, 

The blessings of a quiet snuggery. 

Within the WINDSOR CASTLE's walls, 

Are fresh and green embower'd stalls, 

Hid from the throng'd and busy street, 

Affording all a cool retreat. 

Near, and in front, St. John's Church door, 

The street's direct and straight before, 

CalPd Zaccaria, Twenty Two, 

But at the front there's nought to view: 

'Tis when the house we enter in 

Our int'rest and delight begin. 

There ease and quiet reign sublime, 

Choice Drink^, made antidote to clime. 

Refresh and cheer our drooping " sprites,' 

Aud stimulate our appetites. 

The cheapest Lunches have such zest, 

We bless OLD HARRIS and the rest, 



» 



XXVII. 

r 

For his cheap bills of fare I think, 
Exhaust the lists of food and drink. 
He caters well, just go see him, 
And his Museum kept so trim, 
Cocktails, grins, and smiles preparing 
Prairie Oysters so ensnaring; 
Pleasing all with well spun "cuffers," 
Anecdotes of "ancient buffers," 
And yarns both truthful and polite 
For Harris is " Cosmopolite;" 
Treats all his friends as they desire. 
His suavity you must admire. 
He loves to please, but not for " pelf," 
For pleasing us, he's pleased himself; 
But call on him and then decide, 
From St. John's Church 'tis but a stride, 
Call morning, noon, or e'en at night, 
He'll welcome you with much delight. 



THE WINDSOR CASTLE 

EEFRESHMENT ROOMS & GARDENS, 

Cleanliness, Dispatch, Comfort and Moderate Charges. 

HARRIS, (Cosmopolite) 

PROPRIETOR, 

Late of London, Melbourne and New York. 



XXVIII. 




PALZON 



LATE 



J. BUCKLER & Co. 

NAVAL & MILITARY TAILOR, 

HABIT MAKER &c. &c. 

No. 19. Strafla Beale 

MALTA. 



BY APPOINTMENT TO H. B H. THE PRIHCE DF WALES 

SALVATORE ZARB & CO. 

ARMY AND NAVY TAILORS AND OUTFITTERS 
50, Strada Reale & 

97, STRADA SANTA LUCIA. 

•BILLS CASHED. 

ESTABLISHED 1840. 
HABIT MAKERS. 

VALLETTA-MALTA, 



PAUL BONAYIA, 

(Btiural printer, 

S3, STB. OBISTOFOBO, 

VALLETTA, - MALTA. 

Every description of Printing executed with taste 
and accuracy, at very moderate charges. 

THOMAS CERAVOLO 

Book - Binding 
In all its branches. 

o 

82, Strada Teatro, 

VALLETTA— MALTA. 



BY APPOINTMENT TO H. R. H. THE DUKE OF EDINBURGH. 

CHARLES SHAW DALZEL & CO. 

AITCTTOiraiBBS 

AND 

APPRAISERS. 
283, Strada Re ale. 

[aubebge de pbovence] 
VALLETTA. 

BY APPOINTMENT TO H. R. H. THE PRINCE OF WALES. 

FnpTDREJJECORATIONS. 

28, STRADA SAN GIOVANNI, 
[opposite st. john's church.] 



Pianos from Erard's Manufactory. 
Furniture on hire at moderate prices. 

WHEELEH & W&BOira 



XXXI. 




WILLIAM ROTHERHAM. 

ENGLISH TAILOR 

NAVAL AND MILITARY UNIFORMS. 
252, STRADA REALE, 

Malta. 

GODFREY CRITIEN, 

34, st:r> a da zR/ZE-ajle, 

valletta, 

(Opposite the Union Clnb). 

ENGRAVER, BOOKSELLER, & STATIONER. 

i 

A Large Variety of Fancy Paper and Envelopes. Card Plates, 
Monograms, Crests, and Inscriptions neatly cut. Paper 
* and Envelopes stamped from Cypher and Crest 

in various colors. 



XXXII. 



EMDIO CRITIEN, 

JEWELLER, 

GOLD AND SILYSH SMITH 

58, Strada Re ale, 

[OPPOSITE DUNSFORD'S HOTEL] 

VALLETTA -MALTA. 



LAWRENCE VASSALLO 

GENERAL GROCERY 

AND 

PROVISION WAREHOUSE 

WINES, SPIRITS, ALE, AND PORTER, 

289, Strada Reale, 

[NEAR THE UNION CLUB.] 



XXXIII. 



THE 



EASTERN TELEGRAPH C0 Y - 

L IMITED , 

TAB IFF per SINGLE WORD from MALTA 
on and after APRIL 1st, 1880. 

mm tariff m ran hie mmn 













£ 


s. 6V. 


Algeria and Tunis — Direct Cable 


• • • 


• • • 





3 


Austria ... 




• • • 


■ • • 


• • • 





5} 


Belgium 




• • • 


• • • 


• • • 





4* 


Denmark... 




• • • 


> • « 


• • • 





6 


France and Corsica 




• • • i 


» • • 


• « • 





4 


Germany... 




• • • 


k • • 


• » • 





5 


Gibraltar... 




• • • 4 


► • • 


• • • 





6} 


Great Britain 




• • • 1 


• • 


• ■ • 





6 


Heligoland 




• • • 1 


• • 


• • • 





6} 


Holland ... 




• • • 


• • 


• • • 





5 


Hungary... 




■ • • • 


• • 


• • • 





6 


Italy and Sardinia 




• • • 


* • 


• • • 





5} 


Luxemburg 




• • • * 


• • 


• • • 





4* 


Norway 




• «• 


• • 


• • • 





6* 


Portugal 




• • • 


• • 


• • • 





5* 


Russia — in Europe 




• • « 


. . 


• • • 





8 


in Caucasus 




• • • « 


.. 


• • • 





10 


Spain... via Vigo or 


Carcavellos 


• • 


• ■ • 





6i 


,, Marseilles 


and 


Land-lin 


es 


• • • 





5* 


If >9 


and 


Barcelon 


a Cable 


) ... 





7* 


Sweden... 




• • • . 


• • 


1ft" 





6| 


Switzerland 




• • • ■ 


• • 


• • • 





4* 



In addition to tbe above rates per single word, an 
initial charge, equal to the charge for five words, will be 
levied on Telegrams for all places in Europe, for example: — 
a /Telegram of Eleven words to Great Britain will cost 
5/6, plus tbe initial or grundtax 2/6, total 8j. 



XXXIV. 

EXTRA EUROPEAN TARIFF PER WORD 
WITHOUT GRUNDTAX. 



£ s. d. 
Russia in Asia, 1st 

Region ... 2 
Do. 2nd 3 

Cyprus Oil 

Egypt, Alexandria Oil 

1st region (Cai- 
ro, Suez, &Canal 

Stations 1 4 

2nd Region 

(Upper Egypt) 16 

Aden o o 

Africa, Zanzibar :.. 7 5 

Mozambique... 8 6 

Deiagoa Bay... 8 6 

Natal— Durban 8 6 

Other places... 9 

Cape Colony, 

Transvaal, and 

Orange Free 

State 9 

India, West of Chit- 

tagong ... ... 4 8 

East of Chitta- 

gong & Ceylon 4 11 
Native Burmah ... 5 1 

Penang 5 8 

Malacca 6 3 

Singapore 6 6 

Java 6 11 

Australia, — Victoria, 

Tasmania, South 
and Western 



£ s. d. 

Australia ... 10 9 
New Sth Wales 

& Queensland 11 



11 11 
7 4 
8 
10 
12 

1 

4 








4 
2 

7 
8 
1 
1 



New Zealand 
Cochin China 

China 

Manila 

Japan 

Madeira ... 

St. Vincent 

Brazil, — Pernambuco 9 

Bahia and Ma- 

ranham 

Rio de Janeiro, 

and Para 

Santos, StaCa- 

fcarina, and Rio 

Grande do Sul. 15 

Other places... 16 
Uruguay, Montevideo 15 

Other places... 16 
Argentine Republic — 

Buenos Ayres ... 16 6 

Other places .. 16 11 

Unili X X o 

Peru, — Icjuique ... 1 1 

Arica & Tacna. 1 2 

Islay, Mollendo 

Puno and Are- 

1 
1 
Bolivia, Autofagasta... 1 



12 5 
13 8 



9 
2 
9 
2 



2uipa 
ima & Oallao. 



4 

7 
4 



2 

9 



4 
5 

10 



COMPANY'S STATIONS: 

Cbntbal Office— 7, Strada Marsamuscetto, VALLETTA, 
Branch Offices — 95a., Strada Santa Lucia, Do. 

3, Strada Ghar Illembi, SLIEMA. 
•4>rii 1st, 1880. By Order, 

ROBERT PORTELH, 
Manager. 



XXXV. 




INCORPORATED BY ROYAL 
CHARTER IN 1840. 



The Company's Steamers leave Malta out- 
ward — via Suez Canal — for Port-Said, Suez, 
Aden and Bombay every Thursday. 

For Galle, Madras, Calcutta, Penang, Sin- 
gapore, China, Japan and Australia every alter- 
nate Thursday. 

The homeward steamers are due at Malta 
from Bombay and Aden every Tuesday, * and 
from Australia, Japan, China, Singapore, Pe- 
nang, Calcutta, Madras, and Galle every alter- 
nate Tuesday. 

For particulars of Freight or Passage 
Money, apply at the Company's Office, 41, 
Str. Mercanti. 

GEO. S. BROOKS, 
Agent. 



(*) During & W. Monsoon from June till September, the 
arrivals will probably be on Thursday. 



xxxvi; 

LEYLAND LINE 

FIRST CLASS SCREW STEAMERS 
FROM LIVERPOOL 

TO SYRA, SMYRNA, AND CONSTANTINOPLE, 

FROM LIVERPOOL, TO ALEXANDRIA, 
CALLING AT GIBRALTAR AND MALTA. 



LIVERPOOL AND THE EAST 

PAPAYANNI S CO.'S LINE 

OF BRITISH SCREW STEAMERS 

SAILING BETWEEN 

LIVERPOOL, SYRA, SMYRNA, & CONSTANTINOPLE, 

LIVERPOOL AND ALEXANDRIA 

CALLING AT MALTA. * 

These Steamers have good accommoda- 
tion for passengers and carry a Stewardess. 

ACHILLE CAMILLEHI, 

AGENT, 

91, Strafla Levante, 

VALLETTA. 



XXXVII. 




T. G. MICALLEF 

COAL hm &EHEBAL MEBSHAHT 

.AlfcTJD 

STEAM SHIP AGENT, MALTA. 

AGENT FOR 

Messrs CORY BROS. & Co., Cardiff & London. 
Messrs BAZIN & Co., Marseilles & Port Said. 
Messrs FRAISSINET & Co., Marseilles. 

* * 

LINE OF STEAMERS TO THE BLACK 

SEA, EGYPT, &c. 

FRENCH PACKETS FOR 'NAPLES, 
GENOA, AND MARSEILLES, 

AND 
VICE VERSA. 



XXXVIII, 



MICHAEL & SONS, 

BY SPECIAL APPOINTMENT PURVEYORS TO THEIR ROYAL 
HIGHNESSES THE OUKE OF EDINBURGH, 

THE OUKE OF CONNAUGHT, 

AND 
THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE. 



l.«HM^avB*i 



NAVY AGENTS 
AND WINE MERCHANTS, 

GENERAL EXPORT PROVISION 

WAREHOUSE. 

(Established 1826; 
7, Marina, Custom House Quay. 

Agents and Purveyors to British and Foreign Yachts. 
Agents for Messrs Pickford & Co., Shipping Agents all over the 

United Kingdom. 
Agents and Purveyors to H. I. Japanese M's Navy. 



The above Firm has recently removed to one of the largest 
houses in Malta, which will be found in every respect convenient 
for the Shipping Trade in general. A very large stock of stores 
on sale at wholesale prices. 



MICHAEL & SONS are represented by Agents in almost 
e very part of the Globe. 



Registered Telegraphic address: "Michael, Malta/* 



F 



XXXIX. 

MESSRS. 

NI|Y S. KINGJLND CO.'S 

MALTA 
READING ROOMS, 

20, STE/. IRylEJLXjIE, 

f xlltttx. 



Are open during the stay of the P. & 0. 
Steamers in port for the convenience of pass- 
engers free of charge. 

The " Kaisar-i-Hind " Cigarettes which 
in the opinion of Connoisseurs are second to 
none, may be obtained at this Establishment. 

These cigarettes are made by hand from 
the choicest Turkish tobacco, and the papet 
used in their manufacture is specially pre- 
pared for the sole Manufacturers. 

TURN BULL Junr, & SOMERVILLE, 

20, Strada Reale. 



XL. 



MEDITERRANEAN EXTENSION 
TELEGRAPH COMPANY LIMITED 



WORD RATE TARIFF 

EUROPEAN SYSTEM 

Composed of the rate applicable to the actual 

number of words, plus an Additional Rate or 

Grnndtax of 5 words per telegram. 

UNDER THE LONDON CONVENTION 

From APRIL 1880. 

d. 

A.USiria, ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •••■ " 

Belgium, ... ... ... ... ... ... 4$ 

Corfu, direct or Via Zante,... ... ... ... 4£ 

Denmark, ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

.ffitlillCG, ... ... ... ... ... ... ^* 

Germany, ... ... ... ... ... ... 4$ 

Great Britain & Ireland, ... ... ... ... 6 

Greece, (continental]... ... ... ... Via Vallona 5 

Sta Maura, Ithaca, Zante, Cephalonia, Hydra & Spezzia, do. 5£ 

Andros, Tinos, & Kythnos, ... ... ... do. 6 

Corfu and Syra, ... ... ... ... do. 6^ 

Continental Greece, Sta. Maura, Ithaca, Cephalonia, Zante, 

Hydra and Spezzia, ... ... ... Via Corfu 6£ 

Andros, Tinos, Kythnos, ... ... ... do. 74 

Syra, ... ... ... ... ... do, 8 

Continental Greece, ... ... ... ... Via Zante 5 

Sta. Maura, Ithaca, Cephalonia, Zante, Hydra & Spezzia do. 5£ 

Andros, Tinos, & fythnos, ... ... ... do. 6 

Syra, ... • ... ... ... .. f do. 6£ 

Heligoland, <... ... ... ... ... 6 

Holland ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Hungary, ... ... ...- ... ... ... 4£ 

Luxemburg,... ... ... ... ... ... 4£ 

Montenegro, ... ... ... ... ... 4*« 



XLI, 

. - d. 

■*» o* ^t q> y « ■ • • • « • ••• ••• ••• . • • o 

J- vcU V y • • • ••• ••• • • • ••■ ■•• O 

Persia, Via Russia 1 Extra European System and without 1/8 

do ,, Turkeyj Grundtax, ' ... ... ... 1|8£ 

Portugal ... ... ... ... ... ... b\ 

Russia in Europe ... ... ... ... ... 7 

do Caucasus ... ... ... ... ... S\ 

Koumama ... ... ... ... ... ... 4\ 

OQCVXft • • • • • • ••• • • • * • • ••• * a* 

OUflilU • • • • • • • • • ••• ••• *•• *^7 

OWC (10X1 ••■ • • • ■•■ ••• • • • • • • ^ 

Switzerland ... ... ... ... ... ... 3^ 

Turkey in Europe ... ... ... ... Via Yallona 5 

Do Asia Seaports ... ... ... do 7 

Do do Inland ... ... ... do 9 

Mytilene, Chios, Samoa, Rhodes .., ... do 8 

Cyprus, ... ... ... ... ... do 8£ 

Candia ... ... ... ... ... do 9 

Seaports of Turkey in Europe and Asia Via Otranto Zante 7 

Turkey in Europe and Asia inland Via Zante ... 9 

Mytilene, -Samoa, Rhodes ... ... do ... 8 

Chios ... ... ... ... do ... 5£ 

Candia Cable direct ... ... ... ... ... 9 



EDWARD ROSENBUSCH C. E. 

General Superintendent. 

COMPANY'S OFFICES 

Cbntral Office, 27 Strada Mercanti, Valletta, 

(behind St. John's Church). 

Bbanch Opfice at the " Boesa " Str. Federico, Valletta. 



XLII. 



W. KINGSTON 

CHEMIST & DRUGGIST. 

BY APPOINTMENT TO H. R. H. THE PRINCE OF WALES. 
AND THEIR R. & I. H. THE DUKE & DUCHESS 

OF EDINBURGH. 

ENGLISH DISPENSARY 

243, Strada Beale, & 43, Strada Teatro, 

(Corner of the Palace Square), 

Physicians' Prescriptions and family recipes 

carefully prepared. 
ENGLISH & FRENCH PATENT MEDICINES. 

Atkinson & Whittaker & Grossmith's 

Select Perfumery. 
Johan Maria Farina Eau de Cologne 

(Opposite Jatich's Platz) 
Agent for Vichy Mineral Water and 
for Clarke's Blood Mixture. 



Best Toilet Requisites. 



Hours of Business during the week 
Ffom 7. a. m. to 9. p. m. 
On Sunday from 7. to 11 a. m. and from 5 to 9. p. m. 

During the night at his private bouse 76, Str. Forni, 

Opposite MorrelPs Hotel. 



XLIII. 

SIG. S. MITROVICH 

PROFESSOR OF FRENCH AND ITALIAN, 

69, Strada Teatro. 
References To Former Pupils. 



G. BRIFFA 

ARMY AND NAVY TAILOR & OUTFITTER 

HABIT MAKER &c. &o. 

28 $• 2S6 Strada -Reale 

Under the Union Club. 

VALLETTA^MALTA. 

Bills Gashed. 
No connection with any other Firm. 

> ' " ' ■ ■ ' ■ 

ANTONIO ZARB 

GENERAL GROCER 

WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANT 
135, Strada Teatro, 

i.*.. VALLETTA-MALTA. 



XLIV. 

Naval and Military Industrial Exhibition. 

Malta, 1880. 

BOSSWARD'S 

Orient Plate, and Tooth Powders 
Honorable Mention. 

BOSSWARD'S ORIENT PLATE POWDER. 

* 

For Cleansing and Polishing Gold and Silver, and 
Electro Silver Plated goods, Britannia Metal, and Block Tin 
Dish Covers, Mirrors, &c., &c. 

Silver and Plated goods polished with this Powder 
will not tarnish, but will retain their pristine lustre. 

The Proprietor feels great confidence in recommending 
his Orient Plate Powder as an ariicle well worthy the 
attention of every House-keeper, Mess Caterers, &c., <fcc. 
It contains no mercury, or other injurious ingredient, and 
is quite harmless should it by accident be taken internally. 
Its daily increasing sale speaks most satisfactorily of its 
merits, and its cheapness recommends it above all others. 
It has only once to be tried to ensure its general adoption. 
To be had of all respectable Grocers and Italian Warehouses. 
In boxes 4d., 8d., Is. 4d , & 2s. 8d. 

BOSSWARD'S ORIENT TOOTH POWDER. 

The most valuable discovery ever made. It thoroughly 
cleanses the Teeth, leaving them Pearly White, greatly 
improves the Effamel, and strengthens the Gums. It is 
not only perfectly harmless, but is beneficial to health. 

Agents Wholesale and Retail, W. KINGSTON, 

Chemist and Druggist, 243 Strada Reale, Palace 

Square, and J. E. MORTIMER, 18, Molo Marina, 

near the Custom House. - ' 



XLV. 



M. A. ARRIGO, 

37, STRAGA TESQBEHfA, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 



Importer of and Dealer in all sorts of Optical, Naut- 
ical, Mathematical, Physical, Geometral, and Land Surveying 
Instruments etc. Navigation Charts, Hardware, & Cutlery, 
also an extensive stock of Photographs-Views, copies of 
artistical works, Costumes, Stereoscopic slides Albums, for 
same elegantly and richly bound always on hand, Stereos- 
copes of all sorts etc. A most extensive stock of spectacles, 
eye glasses, pincenez, eye preservers, etc. and all articles 
connected with the optical line promptly served. 
At the most reasonable prices, imported from the most 
credited London and Paris houses. 



VINCENZO DI ANGELO BUGEJA 

Metal, timber, paint, 8r hardware 

MERCHANT. 

SOLE AGENT 

FOR 'MUNTZ'S METAL COMPANY' 

STRADA MEROANTI, Nos. 77, 168, & 169 
STR. CRISTOFORO, Nos. 147, 148d., & 177*. 

tyculkt^ Malta,. 



XLVI. 



ENGLIS H UNDE RTAKER 

4 

Mr. MARTIN conducts Funerals 
in the Best Style; Hearse with Plumes, Coffins, 

Hat-Bands, Scarves, Gloves, Carriages, &c. 
Apply in Valletta, at No. 126 Strada Stretta> 

[back of main guard.] 

^figg* Monuments, Tomb -Stones, and Tablets of 

every description 
at very moderate prices. 



I A. MOORE & CO. 

BAZAAR, 

703 & 50, STRADA SAM GIOVANNI 
VALLETTA - MALTA. 

Drapers, Silk Mercers and Hosiers. Table Lin- 
ens, Sheeting, Calicos, Huckabacks, an Assort- 
ment of Excellent English Cutlery, and the 
best Electro filated Goods. 

WINE & SPIRIT MERCHANTS. 

Price Lists gratis on application. Agents for 
the Orient Plate and Tooth Powders. 



XLVIL 



.wv\v-iM4\ ihih M '®^P]?)L| 





BY 

W. REID. 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. 

Studio Open from 8. a. m. 

A Fine Collection of Views of Malta, 
H. M. Ships &c. on View. 

S. SCHEMBRI, 

PICTURE FRAME MANUFACTURER 

AND 

DEALER IN . PICTURES. 

38, Strada Tesoreria, 

(Under the Arcades), 

<Va,ttetta,=<%la,Ua,. 

Prints and Drawings Mounted, Glazed, and 

"Framed. Photographs of Every description. 

Materials for Oil and Water Color Painting. 

• Pianos for Sale and Hire. 



XLvm. 

BY APPOINTMENT TO H. R. H. THE PRINCE OF WALES. 

MICHAEL mm 

LACE MERCHANT & JEWELLER 

Choice and extensive assortments of Modern 

and Antique Lace, Coral, Lava, Roman Cameos, 

Mosaic, Gold & Silver Filiagree Articles. 

269, STRADA REALE, 

Valletta - Malta. 

MICHAEL BORG 

DIRECT IMPORTER 

OF 

HAVANA AND MANILLA CIGARS: 

AMERICAN, ENGLISH, & TURKISH TOBACCOS: 

MANUFACTURER OF CIGARETTES 

EXPORTER TO THE EAST 

OFFICERS' MESS SUPPLIER 

( Wholesale and Export only) 

263, 206, STRADA REALE, & 16, STRADA ZACGARIA, 

VALLETTA-MALTA. 

N. B. Attention is respectfully solicited to tlie 
Christian Name, there being other Firms bearing the 
same Surname with which I have no connection. 

MICHAEL BORG. 




■.«:.■!#&:. - ...».: